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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 351-375 out of 1106.

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Public Release: 15-Nov-2017
Nature Scientific Reports
Shifting presence of North Atlantic right whales tracked with passive acoustics
A new study confirms what marine mammal researchers have suspected for a while: right whales use nearly the entire eastern seaboard during the winter, and they move around a lot more than was previously thought. How long they spend in some areas of their range has also changed in recent years.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Science Foundation, US Navy N45 and Naval Facilities Engineering Command, National Oceanic Partnership Program, and others

Contact: Shelley Dawicki
NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center

Public Release: 15-Nov-2017
Environmental Research Letters
Replace or wait? Study says swap all incandescent bulbs now, but hold on to CFLs
LED light bulbs are getting cheaper and more energy efficient every year. So, does it make sense to replace less-efficient bulbs with the latest light-emitting diodes now, or should you wait for future improvements and even lower costs?
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jim Erickson
University of Michigan

Public Release: 15-Nov-2017
Researchers chart rising inequality across millennia
Researchers at Washington State University and 13 other institutions have found that the arc of prehistory bends towards economic inequality. In the largest study of its kind, the researchers saw disparities in wealth mount with the rise of agriculture, specifically the domestication of plants and large animals, and increased social organization.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Kohler
Washington State University

Public Release: 14-Nov-2017
With launch of new night sky survey, UW researchers ready for era of 'big data' astronomy
On Nov. 14, scientists with the California Institute of Technology, the University of Washington and eight additional partner institutions, announced that the Zwicky Transient Facility, the latest sensitive tool for astrophysical observations in the Northern Hemisphere, has seen 'first light' and took its first detailed image of the night sky. When fully operational in 2018, the ZTF will scan almost the entire northern sky every night.
National Science Foundation, Washington Research Foundation, University of Washington, Charles and Lisa Simonyi Fund for Arts and Sciences

Contact: James Urton
University of Washington

Public Release: 14-Nov-2017
Study settles prehistoric puzzle, confirms modern link of carbon dioxide & global warming
Fossil leaves from Africa resolve a prehistoric climate puzzle and confirm the link between carbon dioxide and global warming. Research previously found conflicting data on high carbon levels and its link to climate change about 22 million years ago. But a new study found the link existed then as now, say researchers at Southern Methodist University, Dallas. The finding sheds light on recent and future increases in atmospheric carbon and its impact on our planet.
National Science Foundation, National Geographic Society Committee for Research and Exploration, Southern Methodist University Ford Fellowship Program

Contact: Margaret Allen
Southern Methodist University

Public Release: 14-Nov-2017
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
In bee decline, fungicides emerge as improbable villain
When a Cornell-led team of scientists analyzed two dozen environmental factors to understand bumblebee population declines and range contractions, they expected to find stressors like changes in land use, geography or insecticides. Instead, they found a shocker: fungicides, commonly thought to have no impact.
US Department of Agriculture, National Science Foundation

Contact: Joe Schwartz
Cornell University

Public Release: 14-Nov-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Shape-shifting agent targets harmful bacteria in the stomach
A new shape-shifting polymer can target and kill Helicobacter pylori bacteria in the stomach without killing helpful bacteria in the gut. Such a treatment could improve the digestive health of billions of people worldwide who contract H. pylori infections. The antimicrobial agent morphs into a bacterial hole-puncher in the stomach's acidic environment and reverts to an amorphous, inactive structure when it reaches the higher pH environment of the small intestine.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Liz Ahlberg Touchstone
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 14-Nov-2017
Zwicky Transient Facility sees 'first light'
A new robotic camera that can capture hundreds of thousands of stars and galaxies in a single shot has taken its first image -- an event astronomers refer to as 'first light.' The camera is the centerpiece of a new automated sky survey called the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), based at Caltech's Palomar Observatory. As partners in the ZTF effort, University of Maryland astronomers made important contributions to the planning and design of the project.
National Science Foundation, Weizmann Institute for Science, Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Humboldt University

Contact: Matthew Wright
University of Maryland

Public Release: 14-Nov-2017
Microbiome transplants provide disease resistance in critically endangered Hawaiian plant
A team of researchers at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa and the O'ahu Army Natural Resources Program transplanted microbes to restore the health of a critically endangered Hawaiian plant that, until now, had been driven to extinction in the wild and only survived in managed greenhouses under heavy doses of fungicide.
National Science Foundation, Oahu Army Natural Resources Program

Contact: Marcie Grabowski
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 14-Nov-2017
Child Development
Study documents ethnic and gender differences in youths' developing gender identity
The extent to which youths feel typical of their gender and the pressure they feel to conform to traditional gender roles are related to adolescents' well-being. Because many gender-related expectations are culturally based, a new longitudinal study examined how French middle school adolescents' feelings about the development of gender identity differed across groups of teens from different ethnicities, cultures, and genders.
Inspection Académique de la Haute-Garonne, National Center for Scientific Research France, National Science Foundation, Graduate Research Opportunities Worldwide program

Contact: Caitlin Kizielewicz
Society for Research in Child Development

Public Release: 13-Nov-2017
Expanded networks, faculty mentorship bolster female undergrads' pursuit of geoscience
To retain more undergraduate women in geoscience majors, a supportive network that includes faculty mentorship seems to be a key driver, according to a new study led by Colorado State University.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Anne Manning
Colorado State University

Public Release: 13-Nov-2017
Printing a better actuator, actually
The NSF awarded Markus Chmielus, assistant professor of mechanical engineering and materials science at Pitt's Swanson School of Engineering, $296,169 to research how magnetically-enhanced binder jet printing affects the microstructure and properties of magnetic shape-memory alloys. Dr. Steven Ludwick, who works at motion-control product manufacturer Aerotech in Pittsburgh, Pa., is Co-principal Investigator.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Paul Kovach, Director of Marketing and Communications
University of Pittsburgh

Public Release: 13-Nov-2017
Marine Ecology Progress Series
VIMS study identifies tipping point for oyster restoration
Study shows that reefs built to reach a foot or more above the bottom develop into healthy, self-sustaining ecosystems, while those rebuilt at lower heights are quickly buried by sediment.
National Science Foundation, US Army Corps of Engineers-Norfolk District, Virginia Governor's School Program for Gifted High School Students, NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office

Contact: David Malmquist
Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Public Release: 13-Nov-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Texas' odds of Harvey-scale rainfall to increase by end of century
An MIT study finds Texas' risk of Harvey-scale rainfall will increase by the end of this century. By 2100, the annual probability of Hurricane Harvey's record rainfall returning to Texas will rise to 18 percent, if the growth of greenhouse gas emissions continues unmitigated.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 13-Nov-2017
2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing
AI tool quantifies power imbalance between female and male characters in Hollywood movies
UW researchers who used machine learning tools to analyze language in 800 Hollywood movie scripts found subtle but widespread gender bias in the amount of power and agency given to male and female characters.
National Science Foundation, Google, Facebook

Contact: Jennifer Langston
University of Washington

Public Release: 13-Nov-2017
Supercomputing speeds up deep learning training
Researchers from UC Berkeley, UC Davis and TACC used Stampede2 to complete a 100-epoch ImageNet deep neural network training in 11 minutes -- the fastest time recorded to date. Using 1600 Skylake processors they also bested Facebook's prior results by finishing a 90-epoch ImageNet training with ResNet-50 in 32 minutes. Given TACC's large user base and huge capacity, this capability will have a major impact across all fields of science.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Contact: Aaron Dubrow
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 13-Nov-2017
OU researchers harness methane-consuming microbes for use in industrial applications
A University of Oklahoma research team, led by OU Professor Lee Krumholz, is studying methane-consuming microbes from extreme environments that can be re-engineered for industrial applications, such as biodegradable plastics and electricity. OU's role in the collaborative study with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology and Montana State University is to collect microbial samples from extreme environmental sites and to extract DNA and RNA to determine the microbial community composition and the microbial activities that pertain to methane consumption.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jana Smith
University of Oklahoma

Public Release: 13-Nov-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
California birds nesting a week earlier than they did a century ago
An ongoing UC Berkeley survey of California birds and comparison with century-old data shows that many birds are adjusting their life styles to breed 5-12 days earlier to avoid warming that has occurred since the early 1900s. This strategy, combined with the trend of other birds to move northward in range or upward in elevation, allows adaptation to climate change, though eventually the cool window for breeding may become too short for some species.
National Science Foundation, National Geographic Society, California Energy Commission

Contact: Robert Sanders
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 13-Nov-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Archaeologists find earliest evidence of winemaking
Excavations in the Republic of Georgia by the Gadachrili Gora Regional Archaeological Project Expedition (GRAPE), a joint undertaking between the University of Toronto and the Georgian National Museum, have uncovered evidence of the earliest winemaking anywhere in the world. The discovery dates the origin of the practice to the Neolithic period around 6000 BC, pushing it back 600-1,000 years from the previously accepted date.
National Wine Agency of Georgia, Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation

Contact: Sean Bettam
University of Toronto

Public Release: 13-Nov-2017
Nature Biotechnology
CMU software assembles RNA transcripts more accurately
Computational biologists at Carnegie Mellon University have developed a more accurate computational method for reconstructing the full-length nucleotide sequences of the RNA products in cells, called transcripts, that transform information from a gene into proteins or other gene products. Their software, called Scallop, will help scientists build a more complete library of RNA transcripts and thus help scientists better understand the regulation of gene expression.
The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, The Shurl and Kay Curci Foundation, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Byron Spice
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 12-Nov-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Indiana University biologists create beetle with functional extra eye
The creation of three-eyed beetles through a new technique developed at Indiana University will provides scientists a new way to investigate the genetic mechanisms behind the evolutionary emergence of new physical traits. The researchers recently reported their methods in the journal Current Biology.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Fryling
Indiana University

Public Release: 10-Nov-2017
Data science institute develops method to allow mobile users to tap into RF-spectrum
The Data Science Institute received a National Science Foundation grant ($649,963) to develop sensors that will allow mobile and wireless-device users to tap into the radio-frequency spectrum.
National Science Foundation

Contact: robert florida
Data Science Institute at Columbia

Public Release: 9-Nov-2017
Research shows ice sheets as large as Greenland's melted fast in a warming climate
New research published in Science shows that climate warming reduced the mass of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet by half in as little as 500 years, indicating the Greenland Ice Sheet could have a similar fate.
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Canadian Research Chairs Program, a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Science Foundation, Swedish Research Council

Contact: Kayla Zacharias
Purdue University

Public Release: 9-Nov-2017
Fueling the future: ASU scientists promote new method of algal hydrogen production
Changing the way the nation generates and consumes energy is at the heart of a new NSF grant awarded to Arizona State University and Kevin Redding, professor in the School of Molecular Sciences and director of the Center for Bioenergy and Photosynthesis.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jenny Green
Arizona State University

Public Release: 9-Nov-2017
Journal of Human Evolution
Finger and toe fossils belonged to tiny primates 45 million years ago
A new study identifies nearly 500 minuscule finger and toe bones as belonging to 45-million-year-old tiny primates. Many of the fossils are so small they rival the diminutive size of a mustard seed. Representing nine different taxonomic families of primates and as many as 25 species, the specimens from China include numerous fossils attributed to Eosimias, the very first anthropoid known to date, and three fossils attributed to a new and more advanced anthropoid.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tom Parisi
Northern Illinois University

Showing releases 351-375 out of 1106.

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