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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 376-400 out of 1140.

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Public Release: 4-Nov-2020
Nature Communications
Building a quantum network one node at a time
University of Rochester and Cornell University researchers create 'optically active spin arrays' within a device that could serve as a node for exchanging photons with distant locations.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Department of Energy

Contact: Bob Marcotte
University of Rochester

Public Release: 4-Nov-2020
Applied Energy
Water-energy nanogrid provides solution for rural communities lacking basic amenities
Researchers at Texas A&M University have come up with an economical, green solution that can help underprivileged communities with their water and electricity needs.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Amy Halbert
Texas A&M University

Public Release: 4-Nov-2020
2020 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining
Tricking fake news detectors with malicious user comments
New research from a team at Penn State's College of Information Sciences and Technology shows how these fake news detectors can be manipulated through user comments to flag true news as false and false news as true. This attack approach could give adversaries the ability to influence the detector's assessment of the story even if they are not the story's original author.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sara LaJeunesse
Penn State

Public Release: 4-Nov-2020
Science Advances
Brain region tracking food preferences could steer our food choices
Researchers discovered that a specific brain region monitors food preferences as they change across thirsty and quenched states. By targeting neurons in that part of the brain, they were able to shift food choice preferences from a more desired reward (think: chocolate cake) to a less tasty one (think: stale bread).
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Doug Donovan
Johns Hopkins University

Public Release: 4-Nov-2020
Science Advances
Early big-game hunters of the americas were female, researchers suggest
For centuries, historians and scientists mostly agreed that when early human groups sought food, men hunted and women gathered. Not so, say researchers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Karen Nikos-Rose
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 4-Nov-2020
Local cooking preferences drove acceptance of new crop staples in prehistoric China
The food preparation preferences of Chinese cooks -- such as the technological choice to boil or steam grains, instead of grinding or processing them into flour -- had continental-scale consequences for the adoption of new crops in prehistoric China, according to research from Washington University in St. Louis. The authors drew on data from the bones of nearly 2,500 humans to map patterns of changing cuisines over the course of 6,000 years.
National Science Foundation,European Research Council

Contact: Talia Ogliore
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 4-Nov-2020
Bronze Age travel routes revealed using pioneering research method
Archaeologists from the University of Sydney have reconstructed the ancient seasonal migration routes of Bronze Age herders in Xinjiang, north-western China. Published in the high-ranking journal PLOS ONE, their research was the result of innovative methodology. To determine snow cover and vegetation cycles, crucial to the survival of Bronze Age people and their flocks, they examined both satellite imagery and archaeological evidence, as well as interviewing modern-day herders.
Australian Research Council, Swiss National Science Foundation, Chinese State Bureau of Relics

Contact: Loren Smith
University of Sydney

Public Release: 3-Nov-2020
Biology Letters
Study provides first evidence of a relationship between a bird's gut and its brain
A study of the relationships between cognition and the gut microbiome of captive zebra finches showed that their gut microbiome characteristics were related to performance on a cognitive assay where they learned a novel foraging technique. Researchers also identified potentially critical bacteria that were relatively more abundant in birds that performed better on this assay. This correlation provides some of the first evidence of a relationship between a bird's gut microbiome and its brain.
This work was supported by FAU's Department of Biological Sciences Scholarship, FAU's Office of Undergraduate Research and Inquiry (OURI) Award, OURI's SURF program, an American Ornithological Society Hesse Award, the National Science Foundation's LEARN p

Contact: Gisele Galoustian
Florida Atlantic University

Public Release: 3-Nov-2020
Nature Nanotechnology
Industrial-strength brine, meet your kryptonite
A thin coating of the 2D nanomaterial hexagonal boron nitride is the key ingredient in a cost-effective technology developed by Rice University engineers for desalinating industrial-strength brine.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Public Release: 3-Nov-2020
Science Advances
Johns Hopkins Researchers engineer tiny machines that deliver medicine efficiently
Inspired by a parasitic worm that digs its sharp teeth into its host's intestines, Johns Hopkins researchers have designed tiny, star-shaped microdevices that can latch onto intestinal mucosa and release drugs into the body.
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation

Contact: Patrick Smith
Johns Hopkins Medicine

Public Release: 3-Nov-2020
Study uncovers subset of COVID-19 patients who recover quickly and sustain antibodies
Brigham investigators examined blood samples and cells from patients who had recovered from mild to moderate COVID-19 and found that while antibodies against the virus declined in most individuals after disease resolution, a subset of patients sustained anti-virus antibody production several months following infection.
National Institutes of Health, NIDA Avenir Award, MGH Transformative Scholars Program, National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship, Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogenesis Readiness (MassCPR), Fast Grant funding for COVID-19 science

Contact: Mark J Murphy
Brigham and Women's Hospital

Public Release: 3-Nov-2020
Model of multicellular evolution overturns classic theory
Cells can evolve specialised functions under a much broader range of conditions than previously thought, according to a study published today in eLife.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Emily Packer

Public Release: 3-Nov-2020
Journal of Experimental Biology
Goby fins have fingertip touch sensitivity
Primates are renowned for their delicate sense of touch, but now a series of experiments by scientists from The University of Chicago, USA, published in Journal of Experimental Biology reveal that the fins of round gobies are as touch sensitive as primate fingertips.
Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathryn Knight
The Company of Biologists

Public Release: 2-Nov-2020
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
A new lead for disarming antibiotic-resistant bacteria
A virus can stop bacteria from sharing genes for antibiotic resistance among themselves, Texas A&M AgriLife researchers have discovered. The results hint at new ways to treat infections and describe a new feature of a highly diverse, largely unexplored part of the biosphere.
National Science Foundation, Texas A&M University, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Olga Kuchment
Texas A&M AgriLife Communications

Public Release: 2-Nov-2020
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Two centuries of Monarch butterflies show evolution of wing length
North America's beloved Monarch butterflies are known for their annual, multi-generation migrations in which individual insects can fly for thousands of miles. But Monarchs have also settled in some locations where their favorite food plants grow year round, so they no longer need to migrate. A new study of specimens collected over the last two centuries shows how wing length evolves in response to migration habits.
NSF, National Geographic Society

Contact: Andy Fell
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 2-Nov-2020
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hot or cold, weather alone has no significant effect on COVID-19 spread
Research led by The University of Texas at Austin is adding some clarity on weather's role in COVID-19 infection, with a new study finding that temperature and humidity do not play a significant role in coronavirus spread.
University of Texas at Austin, NASA, National Science Foundation

Contact: Monica Kortsha
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 2-Nov-2020
Scientific Reports
Genomic data 'catches corals in the act' of speciation and adaptation
A new study led by the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa revealed that diversity in Hawaiian corals is likely driven by co-evolution between the coral host, the algal symbiont, and the microbial community.
Seaver Institute, HIMB Pauley Summer Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US National Science Foundation, US Environmental Protection Agency

Contact: Marcie Grabowski
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 2-Nov-2020
Microfluidics helps MTU engineers watch viral infection in real time
Watching a viral infection happen in real time is like a cross between a zombie horror film, paint drying, and a Bollywood epic on repeat. Over a 10-hour span, chemical engineers from Michigan Tech watched viral infections happen with precision inside a microfluidics device and can measure when the infection cycle gets interrupted by an antiviral compound.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Allison Mills
Michigan Technological University

Public Release: 2-Nov-2020
2020 ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management
Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management
A.I. tool provides more accurate flu forecasts
Yue Ning and her team at Stevens Institute of Technology trained their A.I. tool using real-world state and regional data from the U.S. and Japan, then tested its forecasts against historical flu data. By incorporating location data, the A.I. system is able to outperform other state-of-the-art forecasting methods, delivering up to an 11% increase in accuracy and predicting influenza outbreaks up to 15 weeks in advance.

Contact: Thania Benios
Stevens Institute of Technology

Public Release: 2-Nov-2020
JAMA Oncology
Mayo Clinic study finds 1 in 8 patients with cancer harbor inherited genetic mutations
PHOENIX, Ariz. ? Genetic testing can uncover inherited genetic mutations, and could individualize cancer therapies, improve survival, manage cancer in loved ones and push the boundaries of precision medicine.
Support for this project was provided by the Mayo Transform the Practice Grant, Mayo Clinic's Center for Individualized Medicine, Desert Mountain Members' CARE Foundation, the David and Twila Woods Foundation, and a Faculty Career Development Award from t

Contact: Susan Murphy
Mayo Clinic

Public Release: 2-Nov-2020
Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences
Mobile phones help Americans encounter more diverse news
Researchers at the Annenberg School for Communication analyzed the news consumption of tens of thousands of Americans over a five-year period on desktop computers, tablets, and mobile phones. They found that contrary to conventional wisdom, mobile devices expose Americans to a much greater variety of news, diversifying the stories that people encounter and their expanse of information sources.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Julie Sloane
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 2-Nov-2020
Nature Genetics
Silk road contains genomic resources for improving apples
The fabled Silk Road is responsible for one of our favorite and most valuable fruits: the domesticated apple. Researchers have now assembled complete reference genomes and pan-genomes for apple and its two main wild progenitors, providing detailed genetic insights into apple domestication and important fruit traits that could help plant breeders improve the crop's flavor, texture, and resistance to stress and disease.
United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Boyce Thompson Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: AJ Bouchie
Boyce Thompson Institute

Public Release: 2-Nov-2020
Nature Ecology & Evolution
New study finds earliest evidence for mammal social behavior
A new study led by paleontologists at the University of Washington indicates that the earliest evidence of mammal social behavior goes back to the Age of Dinosaurs. The multituberculate Filikomys primaevus engaged in multi-generational, group-nesting and burrowing behavior, and possibly lived in colonies, some 75.5 million years ago.
National Science Foundation, Doris O. and Samuel P. Welles Research Fund, the University of Washington

Contact: James Urton
University of Washington

Public Release: 2-Nov-2020
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Flying through wildfire smoke plumes could improve smoke forecasts
The biggest study yet of West Coast wildfire plumes shows how a smoke plume's chemistry changes over time. Results suggest current models may not accurately predict the air quality downwind of a wildfire.

Contact: Hannah Hickey
University of Washington

Public Release: 2-Nov-2020
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Bats can predict the future, JHU researchers discover
They can't tell fortunes and they're useless with the stock market but bats are quite skilled at predicting one thing: where to find dinner. Bats calculate where their prey is headed by building on-the-fly predictive models of target motion from echoes, Johns Hopkins University researchers find. The models are so robust, bats can continue to track prey even when it temporarily vanishes behind echo-blocking obstacles like trees.
Human Frontiers Science Program Fellowship, NSF Fellowship GRFP, NSF Brain Initiative Grant, AFOSR Grant, AFOSR Grant

Contact: Jill Rosen
Johns Hopkins University

Showing releases 376-400 out of 1140.

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