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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 376-400 out of 1105.

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Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Cell Stem Cell
Bacterial infection stresses hematopoietic stem cells
It is becoming clear that immune cells are not the only cells that react to bacterial infection. Researchers from Japan and Switzerland found that bacterial infection also activates hematopoietic stem cells resident in the bone marrow far from the site of infection. This infection significantly reduces the ability of the stem cells to produce blood by forcing them to proliferate. These findings suggest that bacterial infection may lead to a cause of anemia or leukemia.
KAKENHI Japanese Society of the Promotion of Science, The Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), The Kanae Foundation for the Promotion of Medical Science, The SENSHIN Medical Research Foundation, The Promedica Foundation

Contact: J. Sanderson, N. Fukuda
research-coordinator@jimu.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
Kumamoto University

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Journal of Applied Remote Sensing honors 3 as best papers
Best Paper awards have been announced for three articles in the Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, published by SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics. Papers report on technology for ice cloud measurement derived from CALIPSO mission data, a neural network architecture for high spatial resolution remote-sensing image scene classification, and a radar sensor designed to detect and image moving objects behind a wall.
National Science Foundation, National Natural Science Foundation of China, State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, and others

Contact: Amy Nelson
amy@spie.org
360-685-5478
SPIE--International Society for Optics and Photonics

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Building an inclusive community of scholars through mentoring and research
Two longtime advocates of broadening science education, UMass Amherst biologist Margaret Riley and education professor Elizabeth McEneaney, have received a three-year, $987,000 grant from the National Science Foundation to continue their efforts to increase student participation and success in STEM careers and research.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Janet Lathrop
jlathrop@umass.edu
413-545-0444
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Scientists discover species of dolphin that existed along South Carolina coast
Continuing to uncover fossil evidence along the coast of South Carolina, researchers, led by a faculty member at College of Charleston, have discovered a species of extinct dolphin.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Mike Robertston, College of Charleston
Robertsonm@cofc.edu
843-953-5667
New York Institute of Technology

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Scientific Reports
Data mining finds more than expected beneath Andean Plateau
Seismologists investigating how Earth forms new continental crust have compiled more than 20 years of seismic data from a wide swath of South America's Andean Plateau and determined that processes there have produced far more continental rock than previously believed.
National Science Foundation, Rice University

Contact: Jade Boyd
jadeboyd@rice.edu
713-348-6778
Rice University

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
An eye towards islets
The National Science Foundation has funded a multi-university study led by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering who are investigating the use of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to engineer pancreatic islets in the lab. A major goal of the research is to develop a method of vascularizing islets in vitro -- literally 'in glass' -- which studies suggest will result in higher viability and enhanced function after the transplant.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Paul Kovach, Director of Marketing and Communications
pkovach@pitt.edu
412-624-0265
University of Pittsburgh

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Long-term study aims to understand prairie ecology after farmland is forsaken
Since 2001, a longstanding study at the University of Kansas has improved researchers' grasp of how to restore native prairie grassland on these abandoned lands and how restoration is influenced by agricultural inputs such as nitrogen.
National Science Foundation/Long-Term Research in Environmental Biology Program

Contact: Brendan M Lynch
brendan@ku.edu
785-864-8855
University of Kansas

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
A song's structure can be linked to its popularity
Music can elicit strong emotions, which can be hard to describe. A new study has found that a simple change in harmonic structure can contribute to our preference for certain songs. Analyzing the chords of over 500 pop songs between 1958 and 1991, the study reveals a link between those showing higher 'harmonic surprise' (chords that do not usually follow each other) and their popularity in the Billboard Top 100 chart.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Melissa Cochrane
melissa.cochrane@frontiersin.org
41-787-246-393
Frontiers

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Royal Astronomical Society
UChicago scientists detect first X-rays from mystery supernovas
A team of scientists, including scholars from the University of Chicago, appear to have found the first X-rays coming from type Ia supernovae. Their findings are published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
NASA, National Science Foundation, TABASGO Foundation, Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science, Christopher R. Redlich Fund

Contact: Louise Lerner
louise@uchicago.edu
773-702-8366
University of Chicago

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Journal of American College of Surgeons
A pair of medical magnets shows promise as a new tool for creating an anastomosis
An experimental device that employs a pair of magnets offers surgeons a new safe and simple alternative to standard methods for creating an anastomosis for the first time in nearly 50 years.
Mount Zion Health fund, UCSF Pediatric Device Consortium, National Science Foundation

Contact: Sally Garneski
pressinquiry@facs.org
312-202-5409
American College of Surgeons

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics
Understanding Caribbean mammal extinctions of the past spurs renewed focus on conservation
A Johns Hopkins paleontologist and her collaborative team of scientists report they have clear evidence that the arrival of humans and subsequent human activity throughout the islands of the Caribbean were likely the primary causes of the extinction of native mammal species there. The evidence, they say, highlights the need for urgent human intervention to protect the native mammal species still inhabiting the region.
National Science Foundation, Stanford University, Royal Society, Explorers Club, American Association of Physical Anthropologists

Contact: Rachel Butch
rbutch1@jhmi.edu
410-955-8665
Johns Hopkins Medicine

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
PLOS ONE
Study finds link between malnutrition, alcoholism and tuberculosis in India
A new study reveals a striking link between malnutrition, heavy alcohol use and tuberculosis in southern India.
US Civilian Research & Development Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Gina DiGravio
ginad@bu.edu
617-638-8480
Boston University School of Medicine

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
JAHA: Journal of the American Heart Association
Brain activity may be predictor of stress-related cardiovascular risk
A pattern of brain activity that occurs during psychological stress may predict bodily reactions, such as surges in our blood pressure, that increase risk for cardiovascular disease. People who have exaggerated responses to stressors, like large rises in blood pressure or heart rate, are at greater risk of developing hypertension and premature death from cardiovascular disease, researchers say.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Akeem Ranmal
akeem.ranmal@heart.org
214-706-1755
American Heart Association

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Chemists get step closer to replicating nature with assembly of new 3-D structures
A team of New York University chemists has created a series of three-dimensional structures that take a step closer to resembling those found in nature.
National Science Foundation

Contact: James Devitt
james.devitt@nyu.edu
212-998-6808
New York University

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
American Chemical Society 254th National Meeting & Exposition
Fatal attractions for disease-carrying mosquitoes
ISCA Technologies, a California-based biotech firm, is working on several innovations to stop outbreaks of malaria-spreading mosquitos before they occur by using pheromones and other naturally occurring attractants.
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Agriculture, US Department of Defense

Contact: David Danelski
david.danelski@ISCAtech.com
951-850-0143
ISCA Technologies Inc.

Public Release: 22-Aug-2017
Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Ancient Earth's hot interior created 'graveyard' of continental slabs
MIT geologists have found that ancient Earth's hotter interior created a "graveyard" of continental slabs, as higher mantle temperatures than today caused subducting tectonic plates to sink all the way to the Earth's core.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ms. Karl-Lydie Jean-Baptiste
kjeanbap@mit.edu
617-253-1682
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 22-Aug-2017
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Study finds that gravity, 'mechanical loading' are key to cartilage development
Mechanical loading is required for creating cartilage that is then turned to bone; however, little is known about cartilage development in the absence of gravity. Now, in a study led by the University of Missouri, bioengineers have determined that microgravity may inhibit cartilage formation. Findings reveal that fracture healing for astronauts in space, as well as patients on bed rest here on Earth, could be compromised in the absence of mechanical loading.
National Institutes of Health, National Space Biomedical Research Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeff Sossamon
sossamonj@missouri.edu
573-882-3346
University of Missouri-Columbia

Public Release: 22-Aug-2017
UMass Amherst researcher receives $1.8 million to create Center for Autonomous Chemistry
University of Massachusetts Amherst chemist Sankaran 'Thai' Thayumanavan has received a three-year, $1.8 million grant from the National Science Foundation to create a multi-university Center for Autonomous Chemistry, where he and colleagues, including chemist Vince Rotello, will seek to design artificial self-activating systems, or 'automatic control as nature does it,' in Thayumanavan's words.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Janet Lathrop
jlathrop@umass.edu
413-545-0444
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 22-Aug-2017
Lab on a Chip
Researchers devise microreactor to study formation of methane hydrate
Researchers at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering are using a novel means of studying how methane and water form methane hydrate that allows them to examine discrete steps in the process faster and more efficiently.
Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, National Science Foundation

Contact: Karl Greenberg
karl.greenberg@nyu.edu
646-997-3802
NYU Tandon School of Engineering

Public Release: 22-Aug-2017
International Journal of Robotics Research
Designing custom robots in a matter of minutes
Researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) created a system called 'Interactive Robogami' that lets you design a robot in minutes, and then 3-D-print and assemble it in as little as four hours.
National Science Foundation's Expeditions in Computing program

Contact: Adam Conner-Simons
aconner@csail.mit.edu
617-324-9135
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, CSAIL

Public Release: 22-Aug-2017
ACM SIGCOMM conference
Accelerating the mobile web: 'Vroom' software could double its speed
Despite that most web traffic today comes from smartphones and tablets, the mobile web remains inconveniently slow. Even on fast 4G networks, a page takes 14 seconds to load on average -- an eternity in today's connected world.
Google Faculty Research Award, National Science Foundation, MIT Center for Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing

Contact: Nicole Moore
ncmoore@umich.edu
University of Michigan

Public Release: 22-Aug-2017
Nature Geoscience
How continents were recycled
Researchers from Germany and Switzerland have used computer simulations to analyse how plate tectonics have evolved on Earth over the last three billion years. They show that tectonic processes have changed in the course of the time, and demonstrate how those changes contributed to the formation and destruction of continents. The model reconstructs how present-day continents, oceans and the atmosphere may have evolved.
German Academic Exchange Service, European Comission, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Priyadarshi Chowdhury
priyadarshi.chowdhury@rub.de
49-234-322-4393
Ruhr-University Bochum

Public Release: 21-Aug-2017
Nature Genetics
Penn biologists show how plants turn off genes they don't need
New research led by University of Pennsylvania biologists and published this week in the journal Nature Genetics has identified small sequences in plant DNA that act as signposts for shutting off gene activity, directing the placement of proteins that silence gene expression.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Katherine Unger Baillie
kbaillie@upenn.edu
215-898-9194
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 21-Aug-2017
Nature Geoscience
Hidden river once flowed beneath Antarctic ice
Using the most precise seafloor maps ever created of Antarctica's Ross Sea, Rice University researchers have discovered a long-dead river system that once flowed beneath Antarctica's ice and influenced how ice streams melted after Earth's last ice age. The research appears online this week in Nature Geoscience.
National Science Foundation, Swedish Research Council

Contact: Jade Boyd
jadeboyd@rice.edu
713-348-6778
Rice University

Public Release: 21-Aug-2017
Journal of Virology
Johns Hopkins materials scientists probe a protein's role in speeding Ebola's spread
Scientists have pinpointed how a tiny protein seems to make the deadly Ebola virus particularly contagious.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Phil Sneiderman
prs@jhu.edu
443-997-9907
Johns Hopkins University

Showing releases 376-400 out of 1105.

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