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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 426-450 out of 878.

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Public Release: 23-Nov-2016
Science Advances
Huge reduction in African dust plume impacted climate 11,000 years ago
Researchers from MIT, Yale University, and elsewhere now report that the African plume was far less dusty between 5,000 and 11,000 years ago, containing only half the amount of dust that is transported today. In a paper published today in Science Advances, the researchers have reconstructed the African dust plume over the last 23,000 years and observed a dramatic reduction in dust beginning around 11,000 years ago.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 23-Nov-2016
New study reveals when West Antarctica's largest glacier started retreating
Reporting this week in the journal Nature an international team led by British Antarctic Survey explains that present-day thinning and retreat of Pine Island Glacier, one of the largest and fastest shrinking glaciers of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is part of a climate trend that was already underway as early as the 1940s.
National Science Foundation, Natural Environment Research Council

Contact: Athena Dinar
British Antarctic Survey

Public Release: 22-Nov-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Single enzyme controls 2 plant hormones
Scientists at Washington University in St. Louis have isolated the first enzyme shown to be capable of controlling the levels of two distinct plant hormones, involved both in normal growth and in responses to infections. Overexpressing the protein in plants reduced the levels of active hormones, leading to stunted plants. The researchers purified the protein and solved the structure, showing surprising similarities with enzymes that could only bind a single hormone.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Agriculture

Contact: Diana Lutz
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 22-Nov-2016
Physics of Plasmas
Article proposes theory behind fast magnetic reconnection
Theoretical description of the physics behind fast magnetic reconnection.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: John Greenwald
DOE/Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Public Release: 22-Nov-2016
Earth's Future
Oceans act as 'heat sink'
Study by three universities, NASA, NOAA and NCAR, points to the prominent role global ocean played in absorbing extra heat from the atmosphere by acting as a 'heat sink' as an explanation for the observed decrease in a key indicator of climate change.
National Science Foundation, NASA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Contact: Peter Bothum
University of Delaware

Public Release: 22-Nov-2016
Royal Society Proceedings B
Feast without fear: USU scientist says more snake species resist toxin
Scientists from Utah State University and Kyoto University report snakes throughout the globe, some of which never eat toads chemically defended by bufadienolides, nevertheless possess the life-saving mutation that enables them to resist the ill effects of the toxins, which suggests these mutations are highly ancestral and pose no negative consequences for the snakes.
Society for Integrative and Comparative Grant-in-Aid of Research, National Science Foundation, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

Contact: Shabnam Mohammadi
Utah State University

Public Release: 22-Nov-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Cancer cells 'talk' to their environment, and it talks back
A Cornell-led team has devised a method for measuring the mechanical force cells exert on their surroundings, which can help scientists design better biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Cancer Institute

Contact: Tom Fleischman
Cornell University

Public Release: 22-Nov-2016
Insectes Sociaux
New dominant ant species discovered in Ethiopia shows potential for global invasion
A team of scientists conducting a recent biodiversity survey in the ancient church forests of Ethiopia made an unexpected discovery -- a rather infamous ant species (Lepisiota canescens) displaying signs of supercolony formation.
Tree Research, Exploration & Education Foundation, Southeast Climate 39 Science Center, National Science Foundation

Contact: D. Magdalena Sorger
North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences

Public Release: 21-Nov-2016
Scientists reconstruct formation of the southern Appalachians
A new study finds that the process that built the Appalachian Mountains 300 million years ago is similar to the process building the Himalayas today.
National Science Foundation, EarthScope Program

Contact: Kevin Stacey
Brown University

Public Release: 21-Nov-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Catching molecular dance moves in slow motion by adding white noise
If you could watch to a molecule of medication attaching to a cell receptor in extreme slow motion, they would look something like a space ship docking with a space station -- some twists, turns, sputters then locking together tight. With a new improvement to atomic force microscopy by Georgia Tech engineers, seeing this kind of detail is more likely to become possible.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ben Brumfield
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 21-Nov-2016
Geophysical Research Letters
How to monitor global ocean warming -- without harming whales
Tracking the speed of internal tides offers a cheap, simple way to monitor temperature changes throughout the world's oceans.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Hannah Hickey
University of Washington

Public Release: 21-Nov-2016
Nature Physics
New clues emerge in 30-year-old superconductor mystery
Researchers are taking steps toward cracking the puzzle of how high-temperature superconductors work.
Army Research Office, National Science Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council

Contact: Whitney Clavin
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 21-Nov-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
US record high temps could outpace record lows 15 to 1 before
If society continues to pump greenhouse gases into the atmosphere at the current rate, Americans later this century will have to endure, on average, about 15 daily maximum temperature records for every time that the mercury notches a record low, new research indicates.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: David Hosansky
National Center for Atmospheric Research/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

Public Release: 21-Nov-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Keratin and melanosomes preserved in 130-million-year-old bird fossil
New research from North Carolina State University, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Linyi University has found evidence of original keratin and melanosome preservation in a 130-million-year-old Eoconfuciusornis specimen. The work extends the timeframe in which original molecules may preserve, and demonstrates the ability to distinguish between ancient microstructures in fossils.
National Science Foundation, David and Lucille Packard Foundation, National Natural Science Foundation of China

Contact: Tracey Peake
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 21-Nov-2016
Methods in Ecology and Evolution
Scientist strengthens tools to track animal, ecosystem responses to environmental changes
By charting the slopes and crags on animals' teeth as if they were mountain ranges, scientists at the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum have created a powerful new way to learn about the diets of extinct animals from the fossil record. The new quantitative approach to analyzing dentition, reported Nov. 21 in Methods in Ecology and Evolution, will also give researchers a clearer picture of how animals evolve in response to changes in their environment.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ryan Lavery
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 21-Nov-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Rockfish siblings shed new light on how offspring diffuse and disperse
A splitnose rockfish's thousands of tiny offspring can stick together in sibling groups from the time they are released into the open ocean until they move to shallower water.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kirsten Grorud-Colvert
Oregon State University

Public Release: 18-Nov-2016
Science Advances
'Freeze-frame' proteins show how cancer evolves
Scientists from Rice University, Baylor College of Medicine and other institutions are using synthetic biology to capture elusive, short-lived snippets of DNA that healthy cells produce on their way to becoming cancerous.
WM Keck Foundation, National Institutes of Health, NASA, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, National Science Foundation, Welch Foundation, Baylor College of Medicine, Dan L Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center, John S. Dunn Gulf Coast Consor

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Public Release: 17-Nov-2016
Journal of Experimental Psychology
The role of physical environment in the 'broken windows' theory
For decades, the influential 'broken windows' theory has linked signs of petty crime to bigger problems in a neighborhood. Largely left out of such discussions, however, is the role simple perceptual features in physical environments play in encouraging rule-breaking. In a new study, researchers at the University of Chicago explored whether mostly subconscious visual cues embedded in dilapidated buildings, overgrown lots and littered streets can fuel deviant behavior.
TKF Foundation, John Templeton Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Mark Peters
University of Chicago

Public Release: 17-Nov-2016
Environmental Research Letters
Study: Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
New research suggests that Lake Champlain may be more susceptible to damage from climate change than was previously understood -- and that, therefore, the rules created by the EPA to protect the lake may be inadequate to prevent algae blooms and water quality problems as the region gets hotter and wetter.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Joshua Brown
University of Vermont

Public Release: 17-Nov-2016
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Molecular imaging hack makes cameras 'faster'
Rice University scientists introduce super temporal resolution microscopy, a technique to acquire images of and data about molecules that move faster than standard laboratory cameras allow.
Welch Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Mike Williams
Rice University

Public Release: 17-Nov-2016
Nature Geoscience
New study explains mysterious source of greenhouse gas methane in the ocean
For decades, marine chemists have faced an elusive paradox. The surface waters of the world's oceans are supersaturated with the greenhouse gas methane, yet most species of microbes that can generate the gas can't survive in oxygen-rich surface waters. So where exactly does all the methane come from? This longstanding riddle, known as the "marine methane paradox," may have finally been cracked thanks to a new study from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI).
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, The Simons Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: WHOI Media Relations Office
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Public Release: 17-Nov-2016
Current Biology
Discovering what keeps cellular cargo on track
Michigan State University researchers, for the first time, have identified how plants' largest cell factory moves to maintain vital functions, which could lead to advances in improving plant cells' critical functions and growing better crops.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Layne Cameron
Michigan State University

Public Release: 17-Nov-2016
New 'smart metal' technology to keep bridge operational in next big quake
A bridge that bends in an strong earthquake and not only remains standing, but remains usable is making its debut in its first real-world application as part of a new exit bridge ramp on a busy downtown Seattle highway. The technology was developed by civil engineering professor Saiid Saiidi at the University of Nevada, Reno's world renowned Earthquake Engineering Laboratory.
National Science Foundation, Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation

Contact: Mike Wolterbeek
University of Nevada, Reno

Public Release: 17-Nov-2016
Vision Research
Finally, a type of face that men recognize better than women
A study using Barbies and Transformers finds that men are better at recognizing Transformer faces while women are better at recognizing Barbie faces, supporting the theory that experience plays an important role in facial recognition.
National Science Foundation, NIH/National Eye Institute

Contact: David F Salisbury
Vanderbilt University

Public Release: 17-Nov-2016
Computers in Human Behavior
Unraveling how a brain works, block by high-tech block
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University are imbedding building blocks with technology that may provide a clearer view of problems a child or adult may suffer due to developmental disabilities, brain trauma or dementia. Blocks with an array of sensors inside detected hyperactivity and revealed the problem-solving strategies used by each subject. The sensors also detected performance accuracy and the time each user took to complete given tasks.
National Science Foundation

Contact: William Lubinger
Case Western Reserve University

Showing releases 426-450 out of 878.

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