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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 426-450 out of 1023.

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Public Release: 10-May-2017
PLOS ONE
Targeted, high-energy cancer treatments get a supercomputing boost
Radiation therapy shoots high-energy particles into the body to destroy or damage cancer cells, while sparing surrounding healthy tissue. New types of radiation systems are emerging that can better target cancer cells. These include proton beam therapy and MR-linac, which combines real-time imaging and radiation treatment in a single device. Scientists rely on supercomputers at the Texas Advanced Computing Center to virtually test, plan treatments, and understand the basic science of, these radiation therapies.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Cancer Prevention Research Institute of Texas, Elekta, State of Arizona

Contact: Aaron Dubrow
aarondubrow@tacc.utexas.edu
512-820-5785
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 10-May-2017
Nature Communications
Rising temperatures threaten stability of Tibetan alpine grasslands
A warming climate could affect the stability of alpine grasslands in Asia's Tibetan Plateau, threatening the ability of farmers and herders to maintain the animals that are key to their existence, and potentially upsetting the ecology of an area in which important regional river systems originate, says a new study by researchers in China and the United States.
National Basic Research Program of China, National Nature Science Foundation of China, US National Science Foundation, 111 Project of China

Contact: John Toon
jtoon@gatech.edu
404-894-6986
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 10-May-2017
Nature
Waves of lava seen in Io's largest volcanic crater
The most active volcanic crater in the solar system, Loki Patera on Jupiter's moon Io, is thought to be a lava lake that periodically brightens because of overturning lava. A UC Berkeley team regularly monitors Io, and took advantage of a rare 2015 event, Europa passing in front of Io, to map the surface of the lake in detail. They found evidence for two massive waves of overturning lava converging toward the lake's southeast corner.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Sanders
rlsanders@berkeley.edu
510-643-6998
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 9-May-2017
Cornell University Library
Experiments show that a few self-driving cars can dramatically improve traffic flow
The presence of just a few autonomous vehicles can eliminate the stop-and-go driving of the human drivers in traffic, along with the accident risk and fuel inefficiency it causes, according to new research. The finding indicates that self-driving cars and related technology may be even closer to revolutionizing traffic control than previously thought.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Daniel B. Work
dbwork@illinois.edu
217-333-3487
University of Illinois College of Engineering

Public Release: 9-May-2017
Nature Materials
Materials bend as they 'breathe' under high temperatures
Researchers develop high-temperature systems based on metal oxides that 'breathe' oxygen in and out, that could be used to control devices inside nuclear reactors or jet engines.
DOE/Office of Basic Energy Science, National Science Foundation MRSEC Program

Contact: Ms. Karl-Lydie Jean-Baptiste
kjeanbap@mit.edu
617-253-1682
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 9-May-2017
Astronomical Journal
Two James Webb instruments are best suited for exoplanet atmospheres
The best way to study the atmospheres of distant worlds with the James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled to launch in late 2018, will combine two of its infrared instruments, according to a team of astronomers.
National Science Foundation, Kavli Summer Program in Astrophysics, NASA Astrobiology Program Early Career Collaboration Award, NASA Hubble Fellowship

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State

Public Release: 9-May-2017
eNeuro
Men and women show equal ability at recognizing faces
Despite conventional wisdom that suggests women are better than men at facial recognition, Penn State psychologists found no difference between men and women in their ability to recognize faces and categorize facial expressions.
Social Science Research Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Swayne
mls29@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State

Public Release: 9-May-2017
Ecology and Evolution
Noise pollution from gas compressors changes abundance of insects, spiders
The relentless roar of natural gas compressors influences the numbers of insects and spiders nearby, triggering decreases in many types of arthropods sensitive to sounds and vibrations, a collaborative Florida Museum of Natural History study shows.
Bat Conservation International, National Science Foundation

Contact: Akito Kawahara
kawahara@flmnh.ufl.edu
352-273-2018
Florida Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 9-May-2017
Frontiers in Marine Science
Study finds Amazon River carbon dioxide emissions nearly balance terrestrial uptake
New research in Brazil has found that rivers in the Amazon emit far more carbon dioxide (CO2) than previously estimated, suggesting that the Amazon Basin is closer to net carbon neutral. The results increase the most recent global estimates of CO2 emissions from rivers and lakes by almost 50 percent, with potentially huge implications for global climate policy.
FAPESP and National Science Foundation

Contact: Melissa Cochrane
melissa.cochrane@frontiersin.org
41-787-246-393
Frontiers

Public Release: 9-May-2017
PLOS ONE
Pupils' mental health improved through school-based program, study shows
School-aged children can be taught to better their mental health through intervention programmes delivered at school, suggests a new study carried out in east London and led by an academic at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL).
Newham Council, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Taraneh Dadar
t.dadar@qmul.ac.uk
07-701-046-950
Queen Mary University of London

Public Release: 9-May-2017
Scientific Reports
Elusive atomic motion captured by electron microscopy
The movement of atoms through a material can cause problems under certain circumstances. Atomic-resolution electron microscopy has enabled researchers at Linköping University in Sweden to observe for the first time a phenomenon that has eluded materials scientists for many decades. The study is published in Scientific Reports.
Swedish Research Council, Swedish government's Strategic Research Area initiative into advanced functional materials (AFM), Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Karin Söderlund Leifler
karin.soderlund.leifler@liu.se
46-132-81395
Linköping University

Public Release: 9-May-2017
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mosquito-borne viruses like Zika may be spread at lower temperatures, potentially expanding impact
Transmission of mosquito-borne diseases, such as Zika, occur at lower temperatures than previously thought, a recently released study co-authored by two researchers at the University of South Florida (USF) in Tampa, Fla., shows. The study, led by Stanford University, used data collected by the USF researchers to create a model showing the potential effects of temperatures and temperature change on the transmission of dengue, chikungunya and Zika around the world. These three diseases are mosquito-vectored and increasing in the United States.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Adam Freeman
adamfreeman@usf.edu
813-974-9047
University of South Florida (USF Innovation)

Public Release: 8-May-2017
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
'Hot' electrons don't mind the gap
Rice University scientists discover that 'hot' electrons can create a photovoltage about a thousand times larger than ordinary temperature differences in nanoscale gaps in gold wires. This finding opens a path for plasmonic tunneling-based photodetectors for sensors, solar cells and electronics.
US Army Research Office, Robert A. Welch Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
david@rice.edu
713-348-6327
Rice University

Public Release: 8-May-2017
UTSA professor receives grant to support sunlight-harvesting research
Kirk Schanze, Robert A. Welch Distinguished University Chair in Chemistry at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has received a $448,211 grant from the National Science Foundation to support his research in converting sunlight to chemical energy.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Joanna Carver
joanna.carver@utsa.edu
210-243-4557
University of Texas at San Antonio

Public Release: 8-May-2017
Nature Neuroscience
Researchers discover neuronal targets that restore movement in Parkinson's disease model
Carnegie Mellon University researchers have identified two groups of neurons that can be turned on and off to alleviate the movement-related symptoms of Parkinson's disease. The activation of these cells in the basal ganglia relieves symptoms for much longer than current therapies, like deep brain stimulation and pharmaceuticals. The study, completed in a mouse model of Parkinson's, used optogenetics to better understand the neural circuitry involved in Parkinson's disease, and could provide the basis for new experimental treatment protocols.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Brain & Behavior Research Foundation, Parkinson's Disease Foundation, NIH/Intramural Research Program

Contact: Jocelyn Duffy
jhduffy@andrew.cmu.edu
412-268-9982
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 8-May-2017
Frontiers in Psychology
How do toddlers learn best from touchscreens?
Research recently published in Frontiers in Psychology suggests that Educational apps for kids can be valuable learning tools, but there's still a lot left to understand about how to best design them.
National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship to Colleen Russo (DGE: 14445197) by Peabody College, Vanderbilt University

Contact: Melissa Cochrane
melissa.cochrane@frontiersin.org
7-872-46393
Frontiers

Public Release: 8-May-2017
Neuron
New tool for analyzing mouse vocalizations may provide insights for autism modeling
Vocalization plays a significant role in social communication across species such as speech by humans and song by birds. Male mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations in the presence of females and both sexes sing during friendly social encounters. Mice have been genetically well characterized and used extensively for research on autism as well as in other areas, but until now there have been limitations to studying their ultrasonic vocalizations.
National Science Foundation, Autism Speaks, Project 2 of the Conte Center, Simms/Mann Chair in Developmental Neurogenetics

Contact: Ellin Kavanagh
ekavanagh@chla.usc.edu
323-361-8505
Children's Hospital Los Angeles

Public Release: 5-May-2017
Nature Communications
Discovery of new transparent thin film material could improve electronics and solar cells
A team of researchers, led by the University of Minnesota, have discovered a new nano-scale thin film material with the highest-ever conductivity in its class. The new material could lead to smaller, faster, and more powerful electronics, as well as more efficient solar cells.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, US Department of Energy

Contact: Rhonda Zurn
rzurn@umn.edu
612-626-7959
University of Minnesota

Public Release: 5-May-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
CCNY physicists demonstrate photonic hypercrystals for control of light-matter interaction
Control of light-matter interaction is central to fundamental phenomena and technologies such as photosynthesis, lasers, LEDs and solar cells. City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways.
Army Research Office, National Science Foundation - Division of Materials Research MRSEC program, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

Contact: Jay Mwamba
jmwamba@ccny.cuny.edu
212-650-7580
City College of New York

Public Release: 4-May-2017
Journal of Biomedical Optics
Optical spectroscopy improves predictive assessment of kidney function
A new optical spectroscopy technique developed by researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Lab promises to improve accuracy and lower costs of real-time assessment of kidney function, reports an article published this week in the Journal of Biomedical Optics. The journal is published by SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics.
DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Center for Biophotonics, National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, University of California Davis

Contact: Amy Nelson
amy@spie.org
360-685-5478
SPIE--International Society for Optics and Photonics

Public Release: 4-May-2017
Reaching for the stormy cloud with chameleon
PortHadoop-R portable Hadoop architecture developed that fetches data directly from parallel file systems and can integrate the data reading process into R software system for data analysis and visualization under Hadoop environment. Chameleon cloud testbed is used to develop PortHadoop-R, and for use in the NASA Cloud library. PortHadoop-R yielded 15-fold speedup in MapReduce processing of NASA Cloud library data on Chameleon system.
National Science Foundation, NASA Advanced Information Systems Technology Program

Contact: Jorge Salazar
jorge@tacc.utexas.edu
512-471-3980
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 4-May-2017
Geophysical Research Letters
Decades of data on world's oceans reveal a troubling oxygen decline
A new analysis of decades of data on oceans across the globe has revealed that the amount of dissolved oxygen contained in the water -- an important measure of ocean health -- has been declining for more than 20 years.
National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Contact: Josh Brown
josh.brown@comm.gatech.edu
404-385-0500
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 4-May-2017
Eurocrypt
Best paper award for IST Austria Cryptographers and their collaborators
Postdoc Joël Alwen and Professor Krzysztof Pietrzak--together with their US collaborators--have been awarded the best paper award at the Eurocrypt '17 conference. Their prize-winning work proves the existence of 'memory-hard' functions, cryptographic functions that are designed to be "egalitarian" in the sense that they can't be computed at lower cost on dedicated hardware as compared to standard CPUs. These functions are crucial to securing password servers and have applications in decentralized cryptocurrencies.
European Research Council, National Science Foundation

Contact: Elisabeth Guggenberger
elisabeth.guggenberger@ist.ac.at
43-224-390-001-199
Institute of Science and Technology Austria

Public Release: 4-May-2017
Neuron
In Huntington's disease, traffic jams in the cell's control center kill brain cells
Working with mouse, fly and human cells and tissue, Johns Hopkins researchers report new evidence that disruptions in the movement of cellular materials in and out of a cell's control center -- the nucleus -- appear to be a direct cause of brain cell death in Huntington's disease, an inherited adult neurodegenerative disorder.
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, California Institute for Regernative Medicine, National Science Foundation, Thomas Shortman Training Fund, Axol Science Award, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Taylor Graham
tgraha10@jhmi.edu
443-287-8560
Johns Hopkins Medicine

Public Release: 4-May-2017
Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology
Reasons for eczema susceptibility uncovered
Scientists have uncovered evidence that a deficiency in the skin's barrier is key to triggering eczema.
Knowledge Transfer Partnership, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

Contact: Karen Bidewell
karen.bidewell@ncl.ac.uk
44-191-208-6972
Newcastle University

Showing releases 426-450 out of 1023.

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