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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 451-475 out of 905.

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Public Release: 25-Jul-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
New theory explains how beta waves arise in the brain
In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a team led by Brown University neuroscientists proposes a new theory -- backed by data from people, animal models and computational simulation -- to explain how beta waves emerge in the brain.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University

Public Release: 25-Jul-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Before animals, evolution waited eons to inhale
Time to smash the beaker when thinking about oxygen concentrations in water, at the time when animal life first evolved. Oceans stacked O2 here and deplete it there, as this novel model demonstrates. It may well toss a wrench into the way we have dated the evolution of the earliest animals.
National Science Foundation, NASA/Astrobiology Institute

Contact: Ben Brumfield
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 23-Jul-2016
UA organic semiconductor research could boost electronics
A team of UA researchers in engineering and chemistry has received $590,000 from the National Science Foundation to enhance the effectiveness of organic semiconductors for making ultrathin and flexible optoelectronics like OLED displays for TVs and mobile phones.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jill Goetz
University of Arizona College of Engineering

Public Release: 22-Jul-2016
After the quake -- data can help predict consequences of the next event
Seismology geophysicist Steve Roecker is using a network of broadband seismometers to learn more about the complex overlap between tectonic plates that causes an 8.3 magnitude earthquake near Illapel, Chile in 2015.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Mary Martialay
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
PLOS Genetics
Penn study models how the immune system might evolve to conquer HIV
In a new paper in PLOS Genetics, University of Pennsylvania professor Joshua Plotkin, along with postdoctoral researcher Jakub Otwinowski and Princeton University research scholar Armita Nourmohammad, mathematically modeled the coevolutionary processes that describe how antibodies and viruses interact and adapt to one another over the course of a chronic infection, such as HIV/AIDS.
National Science Foundation, James S. McDonnell Foundation, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, US Army Research Office, US Department of Interior

Contact: Katherine Unger Baillie
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
Scientific Reports
Trees' surprising role in the boreal water cycle quantified
This is the first study to show that deciduous tree water uptake of snowmelt water represents a large but overlooked aspect of the water balance in boreal watersheds. For the boreal forest of Alaska and Western Canada, this equates to about 17-20 billion cubic meters of water per year. That is roughly equivalent to 8-10 percent of the Yukon River's annual discharge.
US Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Alaska Climate Science Center

Contact: Kristin Timm
University of Alaska Fairbanks

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
Behavioral Ecology
Temperature helps drive the emergence of different personalities in spiders
Not a single aggressive spider was able to reproduce at 93 degrees Fahrenheit and most of them died at that temperature. But when Ingley and his team added docile spiders to the mix, the aggressive spiders thrived in that diverse community at that temperature.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Thania Benios
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
Physical Review D
New detector at South Pole shows early success at neutrino hunting
The Askaryan Radio Array team recently published a performance review of the first two stations to come online, showing great potential for the detector to push forward understanding of the cosmos once it's fully operational.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Brendan M. Lynch
University of Kansas

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
CCNY research gleans climate change insight from lizard genome
Using genomic data from three lizard species, City College of New York-led researchers gleaned insights not available before on the impact of climate change on the distribution of animal populations in South American forests. The findings improve ways of modeling the distribution of biodiversity in the past and future.
National Science Foundation, FAPESP, NASA

Contact: Patricia Reilly
City College of New York

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
Pitt receives NSF grant to study how aluminum alloy microstructures form in real time
A grant from the National Science Foundation will enable researchers at the University of Pittsburgh to utilize a one-of-a-kind transmission electron microscope developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to examine in real time how microstructures form in metals and alloys as they solidify after laser beam melting.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Paul Kovach
University of Pittsburgh

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
Advanced Materials
Artificial muscle for soft robotics: Low voltage, high hopes
Now, researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a dielectric elastomer with a broad range of motion that requires relatively low voltage and no rigid components. This type of actuator could be used in everything from wearable devices to soft grippers, laparoscopic surgical tools, entirely soft robots or artificial muscles in more complex robotics.
National Science Foundation, Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Link Foundation Fellowship

Contact: Leah Burrows
Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
Psychological Science
Watching the brain do math
A new Carnegie Mellon University neuroimaging study reveals the mental stages people go through as they are solving challenging math problems. Insights from this new work may eventually be applied to the design of more effective classroom instruction -- particularly in the form of improving cognitive tutors by creating models that match the brain activation and thinking patterns used to solve these problems.
National Science Foundation, James S. McDonnell Foundation

Contact: Shilo Rea
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
Nature Materials
Self-organizing smart materials that mimic swarm behavior
An international team of researchers has successfully demonstrated the self-organizing pattern formation in active materials at microscale with computer simulations.
Korean Institute for Basic Science, US Department of Energy, Northwestern's Materials Research Center, and National Science Foundation

Contact: JooHyeon Heo
Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology(UNIST)

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
Psychological Science
Distinct stages of thinking revealed by brain activity patterns
Neuroimaging data can reveal the mental stages people go through as they are solving challenging math problems, according to a new study published in Psychological Science. By combining two analytical strategies, researchers were able to use functional MRI to identify patterns of brain activity that aligned with four distinct stages of problem solving.
National Science Foundation, James S. McDonnell Foundation

Contact: Anna Mikulak
Association for Psychological Science

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
IDM2016, Identification of Dark Matter
World's most sensitive dark matter detector completes search
The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, which, with the help of Berkeley Lab researchers, operates beneath a mile of rock at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in the Black Hills of South Dakota, has completed its search for the missing matter of the universe. At a meeting in the UK, LUX scientific collaborators presented the results from the detector's final 20-month run.
DOE/Office of Science, National Science Foundation

Contact: Dan Krotz
DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
Unconventional quasiparticles predicted in conventional crystals
An international team of researchers has predicted the existence of several previously unknown types of quantum particles in materials. The research represents the newest avenue in the physics of 'topological materials,' an area of science that has already fundamentally changed the way researchers see and interpret states of matter.
US Army Research Office Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative, US Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, W. M. Keck Foundation, Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness

Contact: Catherine Zandonella
Princeton University

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
Yeast emerges as hidden third partner in lichen symbiosis
For nearly 150 years, lichens have been the model organisms of symbiosis. Now researchers have uncovered an unexpected third partner embedded in the lichen cortex or 'skin' -- yeast.
University of Montana, Austrian Science Fund, National Science Foundation, NASA/Astrobiology Institute, Stiftelsen Oscar och Lili Lammes minne

Contact: Natalie van Hoose
Purdue University

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
Accurate design of large icosahedral protein nanocages pushes bioengineering boundaries
Inspired by shells that protect virus genomes, researchers set out to design self-assembling, roomy protein structures capable of packaging and delivering cargo to cells. They have now engineered the largest, human-designed protein complexes to date confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The structures can self-assemble around other materials. This cargo-packaging capability may lead to creating a new generation of molecular machines that could deliver drugs or genetic therapies to cells, or carry tiny chemical reactors.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Contact: Leila Gray
University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine

Public Release: 21-Jul-2016
Cell Systems
Carnegie Mellon algorithm characterizes how cancer genomes get scrambled
A new method developed by Carnegie Mellon University for analyzing the scrambled genomes of cancer cells gives researchers for the first time the ability to simultaneously identify two different types of genetic changes associated with cancers and to identify connections between the two.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Byron Spice
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 20-Jul-2016
Public Library of Science
Super-eruptions may give a year's warning before they blow
A microscopic analysis of quartz crystals from an ancient California super-eruption indicates that the process of decompression immediately preceding the eruption began about a year before the eruption itself.
National Science Foundation, DOE/Office of Science

Contact: David F Salisbury
Vanderbilt University

Public Release: 20-Jul-2016
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Come on baby, (re)light my fire
Many couples find that their sexual desire has dwindled over time. It's not unusual for partners who could not keep their hands off each to gradually lose interest. But new research indicates that there are ways that couples can sustain -- or relight -- their passion. 'Our research shows that partners who are responsive to each other outside the bedroom are able to maintain their sexual desire.'
Israel Science Foundation, Binational Science Foundation

Contact: Monique Patenaude
University of Rochester

Public Release: 20-Jul-2016
Science Advances
Titanium + gold = new gold standard for artificial joints
Titanium is the leading material for artificial knee and hip joints because it's strong, wear-resistant and nontoxic, but an unexpected discovery by Rice University physicists shows that the gold standard for artificial joints can be improved with the addition of some actual gold.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Texas A&M's Turbomachinery Laboratory, Florida State University Research Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 20-Jul-2016
Putting software on a diet
Concerns about battery life, heat creation, fan noise and overall high energy costs have driven the development of more energy-efficient computers and mobile devices over the past two decades. But the role of software in energy usage has been largely overlooked. A UD research team recently received a three-year, $516,000 grant from the National Science Foundation to support the development of more energy-efficient software.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Peter Bothum
University of Delaware

Public Release: 20-Jul-2016
Physical Review Letters
Quantum drag
An University of Iowa physicist proposes that a current in one iron magnetic sheet creates a current in a separate sheet. The study's finding could be important in the emerging field of spintronics, which seeks to channel energy from spin waves generated by electrons to create smaller, more energy-efficient electronic devices.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Richard Lewis
University of Iowa

Public Release: 20-Jul-2016
3-D-printing lab instruments 1 block at a time
Building lab instruments for chemistry and biology experiments used to be an expensive, time consuming process only done by scientists with specialized training. A 3-D printed, Lego-like system of blocks designed by a UC Riverside team is changing that. In addition to real research applications, the system can also be used for STEM education, where students gain both an engineering experience by building the instruments and a science experience as they use them.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah Nightingale
University of California - Riverside

Showing releases 451-475 out of 905.

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