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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 451-475 out of 862.

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Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
Science China: Earth Sciences
Homologues temperature of olivine links deformation experiments and rheology of the upper mantle
The homologues temperature of a crystalline material is defined as the ratio between its temperature and the melting (solidus) temperature in Kelvin. The melting temperature of olivine decreases with increasing iron content and water content, and increases with pressure. Here the homologues temperature of olivine is used to compare the creep strength of the upper mantle in different tectonic settings, and to investigate fabric transitions of olivine in deformation experiments and natural samples.
National Science Foundation of China, Chinese Ministry of Land Resources

Contact: WANG Qin
Science China Press

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
228th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society
Physical Review Letters
Gravitational waves detected for a second time
On Dec. 26, 2015 scientists observed gravitational waves -- ripples in the fabric of spacetime -- for the second time. Both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors -- located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington -- detected the gravitational wave event, named GW151226. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) and the Virgo Collaboration used data from the twin LIGO detectors to make the discovery, which is accepted for publication in the journal Physical Review Letters.
National Science Foundation, Max Planck Society, UK Science and Technology Facilities Council, Australian Research Council

Contact: Matthew Wright
University of Maryland

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
For tropical mayflies, mountain passes are higher indeed
A study led by Colorado State University biologists shows that insect populations in the tropics exhibit a higher number of distinct species than in the Rockies. But the distinctions between those species consist of subtle, genetic differences that aren't readily visible. These are called cryptic species -- by the looks of things identical, but actually genetically distinct.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Anne Ju Manning
Colorado State University

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
228th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society
Physical Review Letters
Gravitational waves detected from second pair of colliding black holes
On Dec. 26, 2015, at 03:38:53 UTC, scientists observed gravitational waves -- ripples in the fabric of spacetime -- for the second time.
National Science Foundation, Max Planck Society, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Australian Research Council

Contact: Kimberly Allen
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 15-Jun-2016
Journal of Experimental Biology
How red-eyed treefrog embryos hatch in seconds
When they come under attack by a predatory treesnake, red-eyed treefrog embryos must escape in seconds or risk becoming lunch. However, most frog embryos take hours to hatch. Intrigued by the treefrogs rapid emergence, scientists from Boston University and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute have discovered that the minute escapologists rapidly release egg membrane degrading enzymes from their snouts, which digest a small hole in the structure through which the escapees can wriggle to freedom.
National Science Foundation, Boston University, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Contact: Kathryn Knight
The Company of Biologists

Public Release: 14-Jun-2016
Senior moments explained: Older adults have weaker clutter control
A new study from the Georgia Institute of Technology finds that older people struggle to remember important details because their brains can't resist the irrelevant 'stuff' they soak up subconsciously. As a result, they tend to be less confident in their memories.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jason Maderer
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 14-Jun-2016
Journal of Medical Internet Research
The social life of health information
Most Americans go online for information and support about health-related issues. But what exactly are they looking for? Researchers at the University of California, Riverside shed light on this in a new study that examines how different people in different places use the internet to discuss their health. Titled 'Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Online Health-Related Social media,' the study was published today (June 13) in the Journal of Medical Internet Research.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah Nightingale
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 14-Jun-2016
Polymer 'pens'
The University of Delaware's Thomas H. Epps, III, and a collaborator Kai Qi from DuPont Performance Materials have received a grant from the National Science Foundation to investigate a new approach to manufacturing small-scale structures that are cheaper, lighter and defect-free.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Peter Bothum
University of Delaware

Public Release: 14-Jun-2016
Physical Review Letters
DNA in 'unbiased' model curls both ways
Rice University scientists find DNA superhelices turn left as well as right in an 'unbiased' computer model of chromosomes during mitosis.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Mike Williams
Rice University

Public Release: 14-Jun-2016
American Naturalist
Sunflower pollen protects bees from parasites
Solitary mason bees specializing on sunflower pollen were not attacked by a common brood-parasitic wasp, which lays eggs in the nests, where its larvae kill bee eggs and eat their pollen provisions.
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, National Science Foundation, Rocky Mountain Biological Research Station

Contact: Jessica R. K. Forrest
University of Chicago Press Journals

Public Release: 14-Jun-2016
Functional Ecology
Garlic mustard populations likely to decline
Garlic mustard, an invasive plant affecting forested areas in the Midwestern and Eastern United States, secretes a chemical called sinigrin into soil to deter the growth of other plants and decrease competition. Researchers have found that sinigrin concentrations decrease as garlic mustard populations age, demonstrating evolutionary change due to ecological processes. They predict that garlic mustard will decline and reach a balance with native species that re-colonize invaded areas.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Agriculture, US Environmental Protection Agency

Contact: Lauren Quinn
University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences

Public Release: 14-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Modern mussel shells much thinner than 50 years ago
Shells of California mussels collected from the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Washington in the 1970s are on average 32 percent thicker than modern specimens, according to a new study published by University of Chicago biologists.
SeaDoc Foundation, National Science Foundation, US Department of Defense

Contact: Matt Wood
University of Chicago Medical Center

Public Release: 14-Jun-2016
2016 IEEE Symposium on 3-D User Interfaces
Fighting virtual reality sickness
Columbia Engineering Professor Steven K. Feiner has developed a way to combat virtual reality sickness that can be applied to consumer head-worn VR displays, such as the Oculus Rift, HTC Vive, Sony PlayStation VR, and Google Cardboard. Their approach dynamically, yet subtly, changes the user's field of view in response to visually perceived motion, as the user virtually traverses an environment while remaining physically stationary, and significantly reduces VR sickness.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Holly Evarts
Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science

Public Release: 14-Jun-2016
228th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society
Prebiotic molecule detected in interstellar cloud
For the first time, a chiral molecule has been detected outside of our solar system. The discovery is an important step to understanding the origins of life.
National Science Foundation, NASA Astrobiology Institute, National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Contact: Deborah Williams-Hedges
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Electronic bacteria sensor is potential future tool for medicine and food safety
A new type of electronic sensor that might be used to quickly detect and classify bacteria for medical diagnostics and food safety has passed a key hurdle by distinguishing between dead and living bacteria cells.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Emil Venere
Purdue University

Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Scientific Reports
Marine life quickly recovered after global mass extinction
Reptiles rapidly invaded the seas soon after a global extinction wiped out most life on Earth, according to a new study led by UC Davis researchers.
National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Science Foundation, National Geographic Society

Contact: Andy Fell
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Natural quasicrystals may be the result of collisions between objects in the asteroid belt
Experiment demonstrates that natural quasicrystals may have been formed by high-energy shocks between objects in the asteroid belt.
National Science Foundation, University of Florence, NSF-Materials Research Science & Engineering Centers Program, New York University and Princeton Center for Complex Materials

Contact: Robert Perkins
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Functional Ecology
Algorithm ranks thermotolerance of algae
A new tool developed at Northwestern University could play an important role in the race to save coral reefs and in any application that relies on rankings.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Megan Fellman
Northwestern University

Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Nature Climate Change
Carbon dioxide biggest player in thawing permafrost
Carbon dioxide emissions from dry and oxygen-rich environments will likely strengthen the climate forcing impact of thawing permafrost on top of methane release from oxygen-poor wetlands in the Arctic, according to a study led by Northern Arizona University assistant research professor Christina Schädel.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Christina Schadel
Northern Arizona University

Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Organic Letters
Rice University's nanosubs gain better fluorescent properties for tracking
Rice University's single-molecule nanosubmersibles get enhanced fluorescence for better tracking. The vehicles are being developed to carry drugs and other cargo through a solution.
National Science Foundation, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, Yamada Science Foundation, Israel Science Foundation, European Research Council

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Watching 'jumping genes' in action
Scientists have observed jumping gene activity in real time within living cells.
National Science Foundation, NASA, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Contact: Siv Schwink
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Nature Materials
Ferroelectric materials react unexpectedly to strain
Under too much strain, layered perovskite ferroelectrics turn off their polarization, Northwestern University researchers have found.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Megan Fellman
Northwestern University

Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Energy & Environmental Science
Chemicals from wood waste
Vitamins, medication, solvents, crop protection products and polymers -- in future, it will be possible to manufacture many of these from wood waste. The processes will also be at least as cost-effective, environmentally friendly and safe as current oil-based processes. This has been demonstrated by an international team of researchers headed by ETH scientists.
Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Dr. Konrad Hungerbühler
ETH Zurich

Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Genes & Development
Starving cancer cells by blocking their metabolism
Scientists at EPFL have found a way to starve liver cancer cells by blocking a protein that is required for glutamine breakdown -- while leaving normal cells intact. The discovery opens new ways to treat liver cancer.
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Swiss Cancer League, Swiss National Science Foundation, Novartis Consumer Health Foundation

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Nature Cell Biology
Reclaiming the immune system's assault on tumors
One of the major obstacles with treating cancer is that tumors can conscript the body's immune cells and make them work for them. Researchers at EPFL have now found a way to reclaim the corrupted immune cells, turn them into signals for the immune system to attack the tumor, and even prevent metastasis.
Swiss National Science Foundation, Fondation pour la lutte contre le cancer, Swiss Federal Commission for Scholarships for Foreign Students, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Showing releases 451-475 out of 862.

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