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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 476-500 out of 846.

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Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Arc volcano releases mix of material from Earth's mantle and crust
Basalt from a common type of volcano shows a surprising contribution from the descending oceanic plate. Analyses show that magnesium atoms are somehow drawn out of the crust, deep below the surface.
National Science Foundation, French National Research Agency

Contact: Hannah Hickey
University of Washington

Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Where were you born? Origin matters for species interactions
Based on experiments with two species of beetle, ecologists from Rice University and Louisiana State University have determined that the early life experiences of individuals that migrate between local habitats can have wide-reaching impacts on the distribution of species across entire ecosystems.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Success in second language learning linked to genetic and brain measures
A new study by researchers at the University of Washington shows that the final grades that college students received in a second-language class were predicted by a combination of genetic and brain factors.
National Science Foundation's UW Life Center, Ready Mind Project at I-LABS

Contact: Molly McElroy
University of Washington

Public Release: 13-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Current diversity pattern of North American mammals a 'recent' trend, study finds
It's called the latitudinal diversity gradient, a phenomenon seen today in most plant and animal species around the world: Biodiversity decreases from the equator to higher latitudes. A new study of fossils representing 63 million of the past 65 million years reveals that -- for North American mammals, at least - the modern LDG is the exception rather than the rule.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Diana Yates, Life Sciences Editor, U. of I. News Bureau
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 10-Jun-2016
UTA professor earns NSF grant to make lasers, amplifiers for silicon photonics technology
A University of Texas at Arlington researcher will explore the possibility of using a novel optical resonance effect in nanostructured silicon films to generate light, which could lead to more efficient and compact integrated photonic-electric circuits.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Herb Booth
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 10-Jun-2016
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
Supporting pollinators could have big payoff for Texas cotton farmers
According to a new study, increasing the diversity of pollinator species can dramatically increase cotton production. In South Texas alone, this could boost cotton production by up to 18 percent, yielding an increase in annual revenue of more than $1.1 million.
Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, US Army Research Office, National Science Foundation, Winkler Family Foundation

Contact: Marc Airhart
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 10-Jun-2016
Limnology & Oceanography
Study finds native Olympia oysters more resilient to ocean acidification
Native Olympia oysters, which once thrived along the Pacific Northwest coast until over-harvesting and habitat loss all but wiped them out, have a built-in resistance to ocean acidification during a key shell-building phase after spawning, according to a newly published study. Researchers believe this may have implications for the future of the commercial oyster industry.
National Science Foundation

Contact: George Waldbusser
Oregon State University

Public Release: 10-Jun-2016
New tool brings personalized medicine closer
Scientists from EPFL and ETHZ have developed a powerful tool for exploring and determining the inherent biological differences between individuals, which overcomes a major hurdle for personalized medicine.
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, ETH Zurich, European Research Council, Swiss Initiative for Systems Biology, Swiss National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 10-Jun-2016
Nature Communications
Disjointed: Cell differences may explain why rheumatoid arthritis varies by location
Researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with colleagues in Pennsylvania and China, report that not only are there distinct differences in key cellular processes and molecular signatures between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) but, more surprisingly, there are joint-specific differences in RA. The findings help explain why drugs treating RA vary in effect and provide a potential new template for precisely targeting treatment for each and every ailing joint.
Rheumatology Research Foundation, Arthritis Foundation, NIH/National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Science Foundation

Contact: Scott LaFee
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 9-Jun-2016
Nature Chemistry
Oregon chemists build a new, stable open-shell molecule
University of Oregon chemists have synthesized a stable and long-lasting carbon-based molecule that, they say, potentially could be applicable in solar cells and electronic devices.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jim Barlow
University of Oregon

Public Release: 9-Jun-2016
Nature Communications
Study finds link between 2015 melting Greenland ice, faster Arctic warming
A new study provides the first evidence that links melting ice in Greenland to a phenomenon known as Arctic amplification -- faster warming of the Arctic compared to the rest of the Northern Hemisphere as sea ice disappears. The study, published today in Nature Communications, included researchers from University of Georgia, Columbia University, University of Liege, City College of New York, University of Leeds and the University of Sheffield.
NASA's Interdisciplinary Data Science Program, NASA's Cryosphere Program, National Science Foundation

Contact: Stephanie Schupska
University of Georgia

Public Release: 9-Jun-2016
Astrophysical Journal
Likely new planet may be in slow death spiral
Astronomers searching for the galaxy's youngest planets have found compelling evidence for one unlike any other, a newborn 'hot Jupiter' whose outer layers are being torn away by the star it orbits every 11 hours.
NASA, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Public Release: 9-Jun-2016
In the brain, one area sees familiar words as pictures, another sounds out words
Skilled readers can quickly recognize words when they read because the word has been placed in a visual dictionary of sorts which functions separately from an area that processes the sounds of written words, say Georgetown University Medical Center neuroscientists. The visual dictionary idea rebuts a common theory that our brain needs to 'sound out' words each time we see them.
National Science Foundation, NIH/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Contact: Karen Teber
Georgetown University Medical Center

Public Release: 9-Jun-2016
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Lung cancer breath 'signature' presents promise for earlier diagnosis
A single breath may be all it takes to identify the return of lung cancer after surgery, according to a study posted online today by The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. Key findings in this study show that breath analysis offers an option for primary screening and post-surgery monitoring of lung cancer patients. Certain carbonyl volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath indicate the presence of lung cancer. Researchers hope to get FDA approval for this new process.
Coulter Foundation, V Foundation, National Science Foundation, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Contact: Jennifer Bagley

Public Release: 9-Jun-2016
PLOS Computational Biology
Research showing why hierarchy exists will aid the development of artificial intelligence
New research explains why so many biological networks, including the human brain (a network of neurons), exhibit a hierarchical structure, and will improve attempts to create artificial intelligence. The study, published in PLOS Computational Biology, demonstrates this by showing that the evolution of hierarchy -- a simple system of ranking -- in biological networks may arise because of the costs associated with network connections.
National Science Foundation, ANR Creadapt, European Research Council

Contact: Jeff Clune

Public Release: 9-Jun-2016
NIST's super quantum simulator 'entangles' hundreds of ions
Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have 'entangled' or linked together the properties of up to 219 beryllium ions (charged atoms) to create a quantum simulator. The simulator is designed to model and mimic complex physics phenomena in a way that is impossible with conventional machines, even supercomputers. The techniques could also help improve atomic clocks.
National Science Foundation, Army Research Office, and Air Force Office of Scientific Research

Contact: Laura Ost
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
Scientific Reports
Tunable lasers to improve infrared spectroscopy
A new, broad-band tunable infrared laser has major implications for the detection of drugs and explosives.
Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, National Science Foundation, Naval Air Systems Command, DARPA, NASA

Contact: Megan Fellman
Northwestern University

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
Journal of Physical Chemistry B
New antiviral drugs could come from DNA 'scrunching'
Evidence of DNA 'scrunching' may one day lead to a new class of drugs against viruses. DNA may go through a repetitive cycle of contraction and elongation, or 'scrunching,' to generate the forces required to drive the DNA into a virus during replication. A better understanding of viral reproduction could be the basis of new ways to fight infectious pathogens.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Karen Kreeger
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
ACS Nano
Drug candidate shrinks tumor when delivered by plant virus nanoparticle
In a pair of firsts, researchers at Case Western Reserve University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have shown that the drug candidate phenanthriplatin can be more effective than an approved drug in vivo, and that a plant-virus-based carrier successfully delivers a drug in vivo.
NIH/National Cancer Institute, National Science Foundation, Mt. Sinai Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Kevin Mayhood
Case Western Reserve University

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
An eco-friendly approach to reducing toxic arsenic in rice
A team of researchers at the University of Delaware has found that incorporating rice husk to soil can decrease toxic inorganic arsenic levels in rice grain by 25 to 50 percent without negatively affecting yield. The results were recently published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, an American Chemical Society journal.
National Science Foundation, University of Delaware Research Foundation

Contact: Peter Bothum
University of Delaware

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
IEEE International Conference on Communications
Researchers find the right balance to speed wireless downloads through use of duplexing
Researchers have come up with a means of boosting wireless efficiency without increasing interference by mixing full and half duplex radios in base stations. This tunable solution could also allow wireless providers to adjust the mix of cells based on the needs of a region. The research team, led by Shivendra Panwar of NYU Tandon, conducted the first known study to investigate the impact of mixed-cell base stations on spectral efficiency and outages.
National Science Foundation, Center for Advanced Technology in Telecommunications, New York University WIRELESS research center, Higher Education Authority, Science Foundation Ireland

Contact: Kathleen Hamilton
NYU Tandon School of Engineering

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
Physics Letters B
At the LHC, charmed twins will soon be more common than singles
In the range of energies penetrated by the LHC accelerator, a new mechanism of the creation of particles is becoming more prominent, say scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Krakow. The comparison between theoretical predictions and test data leaves no doubt: the energy in collisions is now so great that some of the elementary particles, mesons containing charm quarks, are beginning to emerge in pairs as often as single ones - and even more often.
Polish National Science Centre, Transfer of Natural Sciences and Engineering Knowledge in Rzeszów, Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation

Contact: Prof. Antoni Szczurek
The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
Nature Communications
Tiny diamonds could enable huge advances in nanotechnology
University of Maryland researchers developed a new, quick and inexpensive method for constructing diamond-based hybrid nanoparticles in large quantities from the ground up, thereby circumventing many of the problems with current methods. The process begins with nanoscale diamonds containing a 'nitrogen vacancy' impurity that confers special optical and electromagnetic properties. By attaching metal particles or semiconducting'"quantum dots,' the researchers can create various hybrid nanoparticles, including nanoscale semiconductors and magnets with precisely tailored properties.
US Department of Energy, Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Matthew Wright
University of Maryland

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
Journal of Archaeological Science
Old World metals traded on Alaska coast hundreds of years before contact with Europeans
Two leaded bronze artifacts found in northwestern Alaska are the first evidence that metal from Asia reached prehistoric North America prior to contact with Europeans, according to new Purdue University research.
National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs Arctic Social Sciences

Contact: Amy Patterson Neubert
Purdue University

Public Release: 7-Jun-2016
Nature Communications
Coral reefs fall victim to overfishing, pollution, ocean warming
Coral reefs are declining worldwide because a combination of factors -- overfishing, nutrient pollution and pathogenic disease -- ultimately become deadly in the face of higher ocean temperatures, according to a multiyear study by researchers from Rice, Oregon State and other institutions.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Showing releases 476-500 out of 846.

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