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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

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Showing releases 526-550 out of 1140.

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Public Release: 14-Oct-2020
Science Advances
Scientists show jet lag conditions impair immune response in mice
International researchers publishing in Science Advances reveal in a mouse study that chronic jet lag alters the microenvironment surrounding tumor cells, making it more favorable for tumor growth, and also hinders the body's natural immune defenses.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Whitney Slightham
jdpastor@vt.edu
540-526-2222
Virginia Tech

Public Release: 13-Oct-2020
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
Trees and lawns beat the heat
As climate change pushes many cities towards dangerous temperatures, planners are scrambling to mitigate excessive heat. One strategy is to replace artificial surfaces with vegetation cover. In water-limited regions, municipalities have to balance the benefit of cooler temperatures with using precious water for irrigation. A new University of Utah study will make those decisions easier for the semi-arid Salt Lake Valley, the largest metropolitan area in Utah located in the northern part of the state.
National Science Foundation, Red Butte Garden

Contact: Lisa Potter
Lisa.potter@utah.edu
801-585-3093
University of Utah

Public Release: 13-Oct-2020
UTA civil engineer developing new concrete material that's better for environment
A civil engineering researcher will use a National Science Foundation grant to develop new concrete materials that have longer lives and leave more environmentally friendly footprints. Warda Ashraf, an assistant professor of civil engineering at The University of Texas at Arlington and the Center for Advanced Construction Materials (CACM), received a $491,969 multi-disciplinary grant to develop the new material.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Herb Booth
hbooth@uta.edu
214-546-1082
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 13-Oct-2020
Scientific Data
New global temperature data will inform study of climate impacts on health, agriculture
A new data set provides high-resolution, daily temperatures from around the globe that could prove valuable in studying human health impacts from heat waves, risks to agriculture, droughts, potential crop failures, and food insecurity.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Patrick Stumpf
pcstumpf@umn.edu
612-624-2801
University of Minnesota

Public Release: 13-Oct-2020
Soft Matter
Scientists use holographic imaging to detect viruses and antibodies
A team of scientists has developed a method using holographic imaging to detect both viruses and antibodies. The breakthrough has the potential to aid in medical diagnoses and, specifically, those related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
National Science Foundation

Contact: James Devitt
james.devitt@nyu.edu
914-522-3774
New York University

Public Release: 13-Oct-2020
International Journal of Wildland Fire
Without the North American monsoon, reining in wildfires gets harder
New research shows that while winter rains can temper the beginning of the wildfire season, monsoon rains are what shut them down. This monsoon season was the second-driest on record, leaving Southern Arizona dry and vulnerable.
National Science Foundation, Coronado National Forest Firescape Project.

Contact: Mikayla Mace
mikaylamace@arizona.edu
520-621-1878
University of Arizona

Public Release: 13-Oct-2020
New tool can detect COVID-19 outbreaks in US counties that host pro football events
Because the National Football League (NFL) and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) made the decision to play their games amidst the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), Harvard Medical School, Georgia Tech and Boston Medical Center have extended their artificial intelligence-based COVID-19 Outbreak Detection Tool to incorporate NFL and NCAA football games. The model can help public officials and team owners in their decision-making regarding in-person attendance.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Noah Brown
nbrown9@partners.org
617-643-3907
Massachusetts General Hospital

Public Release: 13-Oct-2020
Physical Review Fluids
UCF researchers are working on tech so machines can thermally 'breathe'
In the era of electric cars, machine learning and ultra-efficient vehicles for space travel, computers and hardware are operating faster and more efficiently. But this increase in power comes with a trade-off: They get superhot. To counter this, University of Central Florida researchers are developing a way for large machines to "breathe" in and out cooling blasts of water to keep their systems from overheating. The findings are detailed in a recent study in the journal Physical Review Fluids.
United States Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert H Wells
robert.wells@ucf.edu
University of Central Florida

Public Release: 13-Oct-2020
ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction
Machine learning predicts how long museum visitors will engage with exhibits
In a proof-of-concept study, education and artificial intelligence researchers have demonstrated the use of a machine-learning model to predict how long individual museum visitors will engage with a given exhibit. The finding opens the door to a host of new work on improving user engagement with informal learning tools.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 13-Oct-2020
Angewandte Chemie International Edition
Combination therapy against cancer
In their quest to destroy cancer cells, researchers are turning to combinational therapies more and more. Scientists from Germany and China have now combined a chemotherapeutic and photodynamic approach. All agents are encapsulated in nanocapsules with a protein shell to be delivered to the tumor. There, light irradiation triggers a cascade of events, which lead to the destruction of the tumor cells, the researchers write in the journal Angewandte Chemie.
National Science Foundation of China, NSFC Liaoning United Fund, Science and Technology Foundation of Liaoning Province, German Research Foundation

Contact: Mario Mueller
angewandte@wiley-vch.de
Wiley

Public Release: 13-Oct-2020
Scientific Reports
Researchers develop new model of the brain's real-life neural networks
Researchers at the Cyber-Physical Systems Group at the USC Viterbi School of Engineering, in conjunction with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have developed a new model of how information deep in the brain could flow from one network to another and how these neuronal network clusters self-optimize over time. Their findings can open new research directions for biologically inspired artificial intelligence, detection of brain cancer and diagnosis and may contribute to or inspire new Parkinson's treatment strategies
National Science Foundation, DARPA

Contact: Amy Liberson
amyblume@usc.edu
917-710-1897
University of Southern California

Public Release: 12-Oct-2020
Hydrological Processes
Hurricanes, heavy rains are critical for Hawai'i's groundwater supply
New research led by University of Hawai'i at Mānoa scientists indicates that rain brought to the islands by hurricanes and Kona storms can often be the most important precipitation for re-supplying groundwater in many regions of the island of O'ahu.
Geological Society of America, Graduate Student Research Grant; Harold T. Stearns Fellowship; L. Stephen Lau Research Scholarship; U.S. National Science Foundation; and UH Sea Grant College Program.

Contact: Marcie Grabowski
mworkman@hawaii.edu
808-956-3151
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 12-Oct-2020
Science
Penn engineers create helical topological exciton-polaritons
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania's School of Engineering and Applied Science are the first to create an even more exotic form of the exciton-polariton, one which has a defined quantum spin that is locked to its direction of motion. Depending on the direction of their spin, these helical topological exciton-polaritons move in opposite directions along the surface of an equally specialized type of topological insulator.
US Army Research Office, US Office of Naval Research, US National Science Foundation, National Natural Science Foundation of China

Contact: Evan Lerner
elerner@seas.upenn.edu
908-370-7621
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 12-Oct-2020
Nucleic Acid Research
Why do identical cells act differently? Team unravels sources of cellular 'noise'
University of Texas at Dallas researchers have taken an important step toward explaining why genetically identical cells can produce varying amounts of the same protein associated with the same gene. In a study published Aug. 18 and appearing in the Sept. 18 print edition of the journal Nucleic Acids Research, researchers demonstrated that most of the fluctuations in gene expression between identical cells occur in the first step of protein production, called transcription.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kim Horner
kim.horner@utdallas.edu
972-883-4463
University of Texas at Dallas

Public Release: 12-Oct-2020
Nature Plants
Rainforest at biosphere 2 offers glimpse into future of the Amazon
Tropical Forests may be more resilient to climate change than previously thought, according to a study led by University of Arizona ecologists. The results help solve an ongoing debate about the mechanism responsible for declines in tropical forest productivity that go hand in hand with rising global temperatures.
National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Natural Environment Research Council, U.S. Department of Energy, Philecological Foundation University of Arizona's Agnese Nelms Haury Program in Environment and Social Justice

Contact: Mikayla Mace
mikaylamace@arizona.edu
520-621-1878
University of Arizona

Public Release: 12-Oct-2020
Annual Review of Marine Science
Study: Darwin's theory about coral reef atolls is fatally flawed
Charles Darwin's 1842 theory about the formation of ring-shaped reefs, called atolls, is incorrect, but "it's so beautiful, so simple and pleasing" that it still appears in textbooks and university courses, said marine geologist André Droxler. The accurate description is more complicated, but Droxler and longtime collaborator Stéphan Jorry are hoping to set the record straight in a comprehensive paper about the process in the Annual Review of Marine Science.
National Science Foundation, Royal Dutch Shell, Total, Environmental Protection Agency of the Maldives, University of South Florida, Passive Margins Exploration Laboratories research program of IFREMER, Total, CNRS, the University of Rennes, the Universit

Contact: Jade Boyd
jadeboyd@rice.edu
713-348-6778
Rice University

Public Release: 12-Oct-2020
Literal rise of the internet enables new climate science
Collaborative National Science Foundation grants will use data from internet balloons to study atmospheric gravity waves and their influence on the weather and climate.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeff Falk
jfalk@rice.edu
713-348-6775
Rice University

Public Release: 12-Oct-2020
Neuron
Scientists discover mosquitoes' unique blood-taste detectors
Scientists aren't sure how mosquitoes sense taste of blood, or how they know that this, of all things, is something to gorge on. Nothing else, not even sweet nectar, makes them pump as ferociously as when they're draining our veins. New research identifies a unique group of neurons that don't care about simple tastes like sweet or salty. Rather, they activate only when sugar, salt, and other components of blood are all present at once.
NCATS NIH CTSA, NIH, HHMI Gilliam fellowship, NSF, the CASI/Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Marie Sk?odowska-Curie grant, PiQiMosqBite, a Jane Coffin Childs postdoctoral fellowship, a Kavli Neural Systems Institute postdoctoral fellowship, NIDCD, USAID Grand Cha

Contact: Katherine Fenz
kfenz@rockefeller.edu
212-327-7913
Rockefeller University

Public Release: 12-Oct-2020
ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing
Software spots and fixes hang bugs in seconds, rather than weeks
Hang bugs - when software gets stuck, but doesn't crash - can frustrate both users and programmers, taking weeks for companies to identify and fix. Now researchers from North Carolina State University have developed software that can spot and fix the problems in seconds.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 12-Oct-2020
Nature Communications
EPFL scientist gains fresh insight into the origins of earthquakes
The speed and intensity with which seismic waves propagate after an earthquake depend mainly on forces occurring deep inside the rocks along a fault line, according to a study by EPFL scientist François Passelègue. His sophisticated models are giving us fresh insight into the factors that can trigger an earthquake.
The authors acknowledges funding provided by the Swiss National Science Foundation.

Contact: Rémi Carlier
remi.carlier@epfl.ch
41-216-938-485
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 12-Oct-2020
Lancet HIV
HIV epidemic: Successful use of self-tests in rural Africa
Despite significant progress in prevention and therapy, millions of people still get infected with HIV every year. The main burden of HIV/AIDS falls on Africa. To contain the epidemic, innovative methods are needed to enable early diagnosis of all those affected. A Basel research group has now been able to significantly improve the success of "door-to-door" testing campaigns thanks to HIV self-tests.
The study was developed in close collaboration with the Lesotho Health Authority and the Swiss NGO SolidarMed. Financial support was provided by the Swiss National Science Foundation, the International AIDS Society, and the Stiftung für Infektiologie

Contact: Iris Mickein
iris.mickein@unibas.ch
41-612-072-425
University of Basel

Public Release: 12-Oct-2020
Nature Communications
Dueling proteins give shape to plants
In order to thrive, plants must integrate a variety of sometimes-subtle signals in their environment, from day length to nutrient presence. Biologist Doris Wagner of the University of Pennsylvania and colleagues have unpacked how two competing proteins help plants do that. The antagonistic relationship helps dictate where and when plants develop flowers, a crucial aspect of food production in crop species.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Katherine Unger Baillie
kbaillie@upenn.edu
215-898-9194
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 12-Oct-2020
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Engineers print wearable sensors directly on skin without heat
Wearable sensors are evolving from watches and electrodes to bendable devices that provide far more precise biometric measurements and comfort for users. Now, an international team of researchers has taken the evolution one step further by printing sensors directly on human skin without the use of heat.
National Science Foundation, American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund,Shenzhen Science and Technology Program, Bureau of Industry and Information Technology of Shenzhen, National Science Foundation of China.

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-5689
Penn State

Public Release: 12-Oct-2020
PNAS
Primates aren't quite frogs
Researchers in Japan demonstrated for the first time the 'spinal motor module hypothesis' in the primate arm, wherein the brain recruits interneuronal modules in the spinal cord rather than individual muscles to create movement and different modules can be combined to create specific movements.
the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the Japan Science and Technology Agency, National Science Foundation

Contact: Raymond Kunikane Terhune
comms@mail2.adm.kyoto-u.ac.jp
81-757-535-728
Kyoto University

Public Release: 12-Oct-2020
Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences
Carnivores living near people feast on human food, threatening ecosystems
MADISON - Ecologists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have found that carnivores living near people can get more than half of their diets from human food sources, a major lifestyle disruption that could put North America's carnivore-dominated ecosystems at risk.
National Science Foundation, National Institute of Food and Agriculture, National Park Service.

Contact: Jon Pauli
jnpauli@wisc.edu
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Showing releases 526-550 out of 1140.

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