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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 551-575 out of 1105.

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Public Release: 31-Jul-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Study highlights underlying mechanisms of fractures associated with osteoporosis drug
There is no disputing that the use of bisphosphonates -- with brand names such as Fosamax, Boniva and Reclast -- is proven to combat bone loss and fragility fractures in millions of osteoporosis patients for whom a fracture could be debilitating, even life-threatening.
National Science Foundation, American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

Contact: Syl Kacapyr
Cornell University

Public Release: 31-Jul-2017
Nature Climate Change
Two degrees of warming already baked in
Even if humans could instantly turn off all our emissions of greenhouse gases, the Earth would continue to heat up about two more degrees Fahrenheit by the turn of the century, according to a sophisticated new analysis.
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Pincus
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 31-Jul-2017
Astrophysical Journal
Quasars may answer how starburst galaxies were extinguished
University of Iowa astronomers have located quasars inside four dusty starburst galaxies. The observations suggest quasars may starve this type of galaxy of energy needed to form stars. Results published in the Astrophysical Journal.
National Science Foundation, NASA, University of Iowa

Contact: Richard Lewis
University of Iowa

Public Release: 28-Jul-2017
Stampede2 storms out of the corral in support of US scientists
Stampede2 is the newest strategic resource for the US academic community, enabling thousands of researchers to answer questions that cannot be addressed through theory or experimentation alone and that require high-performance computing power. Currently the 12th most powerful supercomputer in the world, Stampede2 is fastest at any university in the US. When fully deployed later this summer, it will have a peak performance of 18 petaflops, or 18 quadrillion mathematical operations per second.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Aaron Dubrow
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 27-Jul-2017
Ultracold molecules hold promise for quantum computing
A study by MIT researchers shows that collections of ultracold molecules can retain the information stored in them for hundreds of times longer than previously achieved in these materials. These clusters might thus serve as 'qubits,' the basic building blocks of quantum computers.
National Science Foundation, US Air Force Office of Scientific Research, US Army Research Office, David and Lucile Packard Foundation

Contact: Karl-Lydie Jean-Baptiste
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 27-Jul-2017
Insect Systematics and Evolution
DNA links male, female butterfly thought to be distinct species
Researchers recently discovered what was thought to be a distinct species of butterfly is actually the female of a species known to science for more than a century.
National Science Foundation, National Geographic Society

Contact: Natalie van Hoose
Florida Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 27-Jul-2017
Researchers seek to improve solar cell technology using new materials and nanowires
Researchers at Rochester Institute of Technology are expanding solar cell technology using nanowires to capture more of the sun's energy and transform it into usable electricity. Parsian Mohseni, assistant professor of microsystems engineering, was recently awarded nearly $300,000 for an Early Concepts Grant for Exploratory Research (EAGER) from the National Science Foundation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Michelle Cometa
Rochester Institute of Technology

Public Release: 27-Jul-2017
'Dark ecology project' will use past weather radar data to trace bird migrations
Every spring and fall, billions of birds migrate across the United States, largely unseen under the cover of darkness. Now a team of researchers led by computer scientist Daniel Sheldon at the University of Massachusetts Amherst plan to develop new analytic methods with data collected over the past 20 years -- more than 200 million archived radar scans from the national weather radar network -- to provide powerful new tools for tracking migration.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Daniel Sheldon
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 27-Jul-2017
UTA professor receives grant to develop device to fight osteoporosis
A faculty member at the University of Texas Arlington's College of Nursing and Health Innovation has received a $250,000 National Science Foundation grant to design a revolutionary device that could stimulate bone growth and ultimately be used as a weapon against osteoporosis.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lekan Oguntoyinbo
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 27-Jul-2017
New method promises easier nanoscale manufacturing
Scientists at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory have discovered a new way to precisely pattern nanomaterials that could open a new path to the next generation of everyday electronic devices.
US Department of Defense, National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, II-VI Foundation

Contact: Louise Lerner
University of Chicago

Public Release: 27-Jul-2017
Scientific Reports
WSU physicists turn a crystal into an electrical circuit
Washington State University physicists have found a way to write an electrical circuit into a crystal, opening up the possibility of transparent, three-dimensional electronics that, like an Etch A Sketch, can be erased and reconfigured.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Eric Sorensen
Washington State University

Public Release: 27-Jul-2017
Sticky when wet: Strong adhesive for wound healing
A team of researchers from the Wyss Institute at Harvard University has created a super-strong 'tough adhesive' that is non-toxic and binds to biological tissues with a strength comparable to the body's own resilient cartilage, even when they're wet. Inspired by the glue produced by a slug, the double-layered hydrogel material demonstrates both high adhesion strength and strain dissipation, making it useful in a variety of medical applications.
National Institutes of Health, Wyss Institute at Harvard University, National Science Foundation, MRSEC at Harvard University, Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship, Science Foundation Ireland, Tsinghua University

Contact: Lindsay Brownell
Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard

Public Release: 26-Jul-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Shedding light deeper into the human brain
The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. The reality is that light scattering is the major obstacle for deep penetration into tissue.
National Science Foundation, Robert A. Welch Foundation, Office of Naval Research, US Department of Defense

Contact: Aubrey Bloom
Texas A&M University

Public Release: 26-Jul-2017
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Researchers develop model to predict and prevent power outages using big data
High-speed winds during a thunderstorm may cause trees around an electric grid to crash into the distribution system feeders causing an outage in that area. Currently, most utility companies diminish such accidents by scheduling regular tree-trimming operations. This effort is costly and is based on a rotational approach to different service areas, which may take months and sometimes years before all trees are trimmed.
National Science Foundation, NSF Power Systems Engineering Research Center

Contact: Aubrey Bloom
Texas A&M University

Public Release: 26-Jul-2017
Wayne State receives $2.9 million NSF Research Traineeship grant
On July 25, 2017, the National Science Foundation announced awards totaling $51 million to 17 projects that will develop and implement bold, new and potentially transformative models for graduate education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. A team of Wayne State University faculty were awarded a five-year, $2,999,976 grant, "NRT: Transformative Research in Urban Sustainability Training (T-RUST), from this program.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Julie O'Connor
Wayne State University - Office of the Vice President for Research

Public Release: 26-Jul-2017
Nano Energy
Triple-layer catalyst does double duty
A single, robust catalyst that splits water into hydrogen and oxygen has been developed with Earth-abundant materials that approach the efficiency of more expensive platinum, according to Rice and University of Houston scientists.
Rice University, National Science Foundation, Robert A. Welch Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 26-Jul-2017
Nature Microbiology
How bacteria maintain and recover their shape
Bacteria have an extraordinary ability to maintain and recover their morphology even after being twisted out of shape. Researchers know that shape is determined by the cell wall, yet little is known about how bacteria monitor and control it. Since the cell wall is the target of most antibiotics, understanding how bacteria grow their cell walls may provide insight into more effective medicines. Now, a team of researchers has found that Escherichia coli (E. coli) may use mechanical cues to keep their shape.
National Science Foundation, Volkswagen Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Contact: Leah Burrows
Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Public Release: 26-Jul-2017
Scientists regenerate retinal cells in mice in UW Medicine-led study
Scientists have succeeded in regenerating functional retinal cells in adult mice. Like humans, mice cannot repair damage to their retinas. However, because zebrafish can, researchers created in mice a version of the fish gene responsible for turning Muller glia into retinal cells if eye injury occurs. Researchers found way to prevent the gene's activity from being blocked as the mice got older. The new interneurons formed connections and reacted normally to signals from light-detecting cells in the retina.
NIH/National Eye Institute, Paul G. Allen Family Foundation, National Science Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Contact: Leila Gray
University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine

Public Release: 26-Jul-2017
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Milky Way's origins are not what they seem
In a first-of-its-kind analysis, Northwestern University astrophysicists have discovered that up to half of the matter in our Milky Way galaxy may come from distant galaxies. As a result, each one of us may be made in part from extragalactic matter. Using supercomputer simulations, the researchers found an unexpected mode for how galaxies acquired matter: intergalactic transfer. Supernova explosions eject copious amounts of gas from galaxies, causing atoms to be transported from one galaxy to another via powerful galactic winds.
NASA, National Science Foundation, Northwestern's Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics

Contact: Megan Fellman
Northwestern University

Public Release: 26-Jul-2017
Science Robotics
Robot-driven device improves crouch gait in children with cerebral palsy
3.6 out of 1,000 children in the US are diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Their symptoms can include abnormal gait patterns such as crouch gait, characterized by excessive flexion of the hips, knees, or ankles. A pilot study led by Columbia Engineering's Sunil Agrawal was published today in Science Robotics that demonstrates a robotic training method that improves posture and walking in children with crouch gait by enhancing their muscle strength and coordination.
National Science Foundation, New York State

Contact: Holly Evarts
Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science

Public Release: 25-Jul-2017
Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Well-designed visual aids improve risk understanding
A University of Oklahoma professor, Edward T. Cokely, shows that informed decision making depends on the ability to accurately evaluate and understand information about risk in a newly published study in the scientific journal Human Factors. A state-of-the-science review of the literature concludes that visual aids are beneficial for diverse people with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy. Cokely identifies five categories of practical, evidence-based guidelines for the evaluation and design of visual aids.
Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad, Ministerio de Educatión y Ciencia, Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making, National Science Foundation, Max Planck Society, Harvard Center for Risk Analysis

Contact: Jana Smith
University of Oklahoma

Public Release: 25-Jul-2017
Where there's smoke
The close juxtaposition of the ocean and the mountains in Santa Barbara makes for beautiful views -- but when it comes to wildfires, it can also spell danger. In the past decade, the area has experienced seven major fires on both sides of the Santa Ynez Mountains, including the Whittier fire that started July 8.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Julie Cohen
University of California - Santa Barbara

Public Release: 25-Jul-2017
Nature Photonics
CCNY physicists master unexplored electron property
While the charge and spin properties of electrons are widely utilized in modern day technologies such as transistors and memories, another aspect of the subatomic particle has long remained uncharted. This is the 'valley' property which has potential for realizing a new class of technology termed 'valleytronics' -- similar to electronics (charge) and spintronics (spin). This property arises from the fact that the electrons in the crystal occupy different positions that are quantum mechanically distinct.
National Science Foundation, Columbia-CCNY NSF MRSEC Center, US Army Research Office, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

Contact: Jay Mwamba
City College of New York

Public Release: 25-Jul-2017
Cell Reports
Shedding light on cause of resistance to tumor immunotherapy
In tumor immunotherapy, the body's own defense system is activated against the tumor cells. However, for the majority of patients, the tumor cells become resistant to the treatments used. Researchers at the University of Zurich and the University Hospital Zurich have now found in skin cutaneous melanoma that an epigenetic control protein is key to the development of this resistance.
University Research Priority Program, Translational Cancer Research, University of Zurich, Helmut Horten Foundation, Swiss Cancer Foundation, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Onur Boyman
University of Zurich

Public Release: 25-Jul-2017
Nature Communications
New chromium-based superconductor has an unusual electronic state
When certain materials are cooled below a critical temperature they become superconductors, with zero electrical resistance. An international research team observed an unusual electronic state in new superconductor chromium arsenide. This finding could prove useful in future superconductor research and material design. The study was published on June 5 in Nature Communications.
Research Grant Council of Hong Kong, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, National Science Foundation China

Contact: Eleanor Wyllie
Kobe University

Showing releases 551-575 out of 1105.

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