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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 576-600 out of 917.

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Public Release: 4-Aug-2016
Science Advances
Cornell scientists convert carbon dioxide, create electricity
Cornell University scientists have developed an oxygen-assisted aluminum/carbon dioxide power cell that uses electrochemical reactions to both sequester the carbon dioxide and produce electricity.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Melissa Osgood
Cornell University

Public Release: 4-Aug-2016
Royal Society Open Science
Penn researchers improve computer modeling for designing drug-delivery nanocarriers
A team of University of Pennsylvania researchers has developed a computer model that will aid in the design of nanocarriers, microscopic structures used to guide drugs to their targets in the body. The model better accounts for how the surfaces of different types of cells undulate due to thermal fluctuations, informing features of the nanocarriers that will help them stick to cells long enough to deliver their payloads.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Evan Lerner
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 4-Aug-2016
Duke team identifies new 'mega-complex' involved in cell signaling
Duke Health-led researchers have discovered new information about the signaling mechanism of cells that could one day help guide development of more specific drug therapies.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Danish Council for Independent Research, Lundbeck Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah Avery
Duke University Medical Center

Public Release: 4-Aug-2016
Study reveals hidden pollution exchange between oceans and groundwater
Researchers have uncovered previously hidden sources of ocean pollution along more than 20 percent of America's coastlines. The study, published online Aug. 4 in the journal Science, offers the first-ever map of underground drainage systems that connect fresh groundwater and seawater, and also pinpoints sites where drinking water is most vulnerable to saltwater intrusion now and in the future.
NASA, National Science Foundation

Contact: Pam Frost Gorder
Ohio State University

Public Release: 4-Aug-2016
Current Biology
Echo hunter: Researchers name new fossil whale with high frequency hearing
A newly named fossil whale species had superior high-frequency hearing ability, helped in part by the unique shape of inner ear features that have given scientists new clues about the evolution of this specialized sense. Researchers say high-frequency hearing likely predated echolocation development.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Elaine Iandoli
New York Institute of Technology

Public Release: 4-Aug-2016
Sunflowers move by the clock
Plant biologists at UC Davis and colleagues have discovered how sunflowers use their internal circadian clock, acting on growth hormones, to follow the sun during the day as they grow. Following the sun allows the plants to grow faster and put on more biomass.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Pat Bailey
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 3-Aug-2016
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects
Schizophrenia simulator: When chemistry upends sanity's balance
Schizophrenia goes hand in hand with brain chemistry out of kilter, and treatment options for a major symptom aren't great. Biomedical engineers data-mined the collective scientific knowledge of a major symptom, the disruption of working memory, to build a remarkably accurate simulator that can help researchers and doctors devise new treatments.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Ben Brumfield
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 3-Aug-2016
Science Advances
New microfluidic chip replicates muscle-nerve connection
MIT engineers have developed a microfluidic device that replicates the neuromuscular junction -- the vital connection where nerve meets muscle. The device, about the size of a US quarter, contains a single muscle strip and a small set of motor neurons. Researchers can influence and observe the interactions between the two, within a realistic, three-dimensional matrix.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 3-Aug-2016
Scientific Reports
Next generation anode to improve lithium-ion batteries
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside have created a new silicon-tin nanocomposite anode that could lead to lithium-ion batteries that can be charged and discharged more times before they reach the end of their useful lives. The longer-lasting batteries could be used in everything from handheld electronic devices to electric vehicles.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah Nightingale
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 3-Aug-2016
Nature Communications
Paving the way toward novel strong, conductive materials
Bulk metallic glasses are metallic alloys whose neatly ordered atomic structure can be altered into an amorphous, non-crystalline structure -- giving metal the malleability of plastic, while maintaining its durability and conductivity. However, these alloys are complex, often containing five or six different elements, including expensive noble metals like gold or palladium and scientists have no clue which combinations of elements will form them. Now, researchers have developed a method to predict which alloys may form a bulk metallic glass.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Leah Burrows
Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Public Release: 3-Aug-2016
Global warming, a dead zone and surprising bacteria
Climate change is expanding oxygen minimum zones -- virtual dead zones -- thus drawing the ire of scientists. Surprisingly, researchers have discovered SAR11 bacteria strains in the world's largest OMZ depleting nitrogen, which impacts global gas and nutrient cycles. The find upends previous strong doubts about the SAR11 clade's ability to adapt to such harsh conditions.
National Science Foundation, NASA Exobiology Program, Sloan Foundation, US Department of Energy, European Research Council, Danish National Research Foundation, Onassis Foundation Fellowship

Contact: Ben Brumfield
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 3-Aug-2016
Geophysical Research Letters
Early snowmelt reduces forests' atmospheric CO2 uptake, decreases streamflow volume
Earlier, slower snowmelt hinders a subalpine forest's ability to regulate atmospheric carbon dioxide and reduces streamflow, a phenomenon with potentially drastic consequences for agriculture, municipal water supplies and recreational opportunities in Colorado and the western US.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, US Department of Agriculture, Niwot Ridge Long-Term Ecological Research Program, NASA

Contact: Noah Molotch
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 3-Aug-2016
Journal of Experimental Biology
Soaring metabolic rates place sea otter moms at risk
Southern sea otter moms suffer a disproportionately high mortality rate and new measurements show that their resting metabolic rate soars dramatically by over 50 percent when they are suckling a pup. Nicole Thometz from the University of California, Santa Cruz says, 'This represents a substantial energetic burden for a species with already high baseline energy demands and minimal energy reserves and is likely one of the underlying reasons why we are seeing high mortality rates.'
Otter Cove Foundation, Monterey Bay Aquarium, National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research

Contact: Kathryn Knight
The Company of Biologists

Public Release: 2-Aug-2016
Reach in and touch objects in videos
A new technique called Interactive Dynamic Video (IDV) lets you reach in and 'touch' objects in videos. IDV has many possible uses, from filmmakers producing new kinds of visual effects to architects determining if buildings are structurally sound.
National Science Foundation, Qatar Computing Research Institute

Contact: Adam Conner-Simons
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, CSAIL

Public Release: 2-Aug-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Research reveals cancer pathway to spreading through the body
Cancer cells need oxygen to survive, as do most other life forms, but scientists had never tracked their search for oxygen in their early growth stages until now -- a step toward a deeper understanding of one way cancer spreads that could help treat the disease.
NIH/National Cancer Institute, American Heart Association, National Science Foundation, Johns Hopkins University

Contact: Arthur Hirsch
Johns Hopkins University

Public Release: 2-Aug-2016
Science of the Total Environment
Oregon research points to mechanisms on why 'green' helps in urban life
New research finds that airborne bacterial communities differ from one urban park to the next but those of parking lots are alike -- and differ from those of parks in subtle but potentially important ways.
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, National Science Foundation, Betty Moore Foundation, US Environmental Protection Agency

Contact: Jim Barlow
University of Oregon

Public Release: 2-Aug-2016
Bacteria show capacity for rapid, beneficial mutations
Researchers studying tens of thousands of generations of E. coli bacteria report that most new genetic mutations that were passed down were actually beneficial and occurred at much more variable rates than previously thought.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Marc Airhart
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 2-Aug-2016
Nature Communications
Patented bioelectrodes have electrifying taste for waste
New research at Michigan State University and published in the current issue of Nature Communications shows how Geobacter bacteria grow as films on electrodes and generate electricity -- a process that's ready to be scaled up to industrial levels.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Layne Cameron
Michigan State University

Public Release: 2-Aug-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scientists discover new function of FHY3 in plant meristem determinacy and maintenance
A research group led by Professor Liu Xigang from the Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in collaboration with Professor Liu Renyi from the Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences of CAS discovered a new function of FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) in plant meristem determinacy and maintenance by regulating SEPALLATA2 (SEP2) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) expression.
National Science Foundation of China, National Basic Research Program of China, Pioneer Hundred Talents Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences

Contact: Liu Xigang
Chinese Academy of Sciences Headquarters

Public Release: 2-Aug-2016
Nature Communications
Crystallization frustration predicts metallic glass formation
Researchers have discovered a way to predict which alloys will form metallic glasses, materials with numerous desirable properties. The research could pave the way for new strong, conductive materials.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ken Kingery
Duke University

Public Release: 2-Aug-2016
Scientific Reports
Trees on farms: The missing link in carbon accounting
While tropical forests continued to decline, a remarkable change is happening: tree cover on agricultural land has increased across the globe, capturing nearly 0.75 Gigatonnes carbon dioxide every year. A new study titled Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets provides insights into the patterns of this tremendous change at global, regional and national scales.
National Key Basic Research Program of China, National Science Foundation China, CGIAR Research Programs on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry and Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security

Contact: Jianchu Xu
World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)

Public Release: 1-Aug-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Mystery solved: The case of the slipping finger
Researchers discover that ultrasonic vibrations reduce friction on flat screens by causing the fingertip to bounce on pockets of trapped air.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Pat Tremmel
Northwestern University

Public Release: 1-Aug-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Trading changes how brain processes selling decisions
Experience in trading changes how the human brain evaluates the sale of goods, muting an economic bias known as the endowment effect in which people demand a higher price to sell a good than they're willing to pay for it. The findings by University of Chicago researchers to be published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences come from a set of experiments on why traders are less susceptible to the effect.
National Science Foundation, University of Chicago, John Templeton Foundation

Contact: Mark Peters
University of Chicago

Public Release: 1-Aug-2016
Still changing after all these years
If Paul Simon were to write a song about the bacteria in Richard Lenski's long-term evolution experiment, or LTEE, it could be titled, 'Still Changing After All These Years.'
National Science Foundation

Contact: Layne Cameron
Michigan State University

Public Release: 1-Aug-2016
A new leaf: Scientists turn carbon dioxide back into fuel
In a new study from Argonne and the University of Illinois at Chicago, researchers have found a way to convert carbon dioxide into a usable energy source.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jared Sagoff
DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

Showing releases 576-600 out of 917.

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