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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 576-600 out of 883.

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Public Release: 21-Jun-2016
Cognitive Science
Making computers reason and learn by analogy
Using the power of analogy, Northwestern University professor Ken Forbus's structure-mapping engine gives computers the ability to reason like humans and even solve moral dilemmas.
Office of Naval Research, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency,Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Megan Fellman
Northwestern University

Public Release: 21-Jun-2016
Better material insights with gentle e-beams
There are several ways to change a molecule, chemically or physically. A lesser known method relies on electron collision, or e-beam technology. In a review outlining new research avenues based on electron scattering, Michael Allan from the University of Fribourg, Switzerland and colleagues explain the subtle intricacies of the extremely brief electron-molecule encounter, in particular with gentle, i.e., very low energy electrons. The study was recently published in EPJ D.
Swiss National Science Foundation, Fonds der Chemischen Industrie, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, COST

Contact: Sabine Lehr

Public Release: 21-Jun-2016
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Core proteins exert control over DNA function
Histone proteins at the core of nucleosomes and their tails exert control over the exposure of genes for binding, as demonstrated in simulations by Rice University researchers.
National Science Foundation, Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 21-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
New research details how big game follow spring green-up
While biologists long have thought that animals essentially 'surf the green wave' of new plant growth from low-elevation winter range to high-elevation summer range, the new research has measured how precisely the animal movements are aligned with the green-up.
US Department of Agriculture, National Science Foundation, University of Wyoming Berry Fellowship

Contact: Jerod Merkle
University of Wyoming

Public Release: 21-Jun-2016
Journal of Neuroscience
New view of brain development: Striking differences between adult and newborn mouse brain
Spikes in neuronal activity in young mice do not spur corresponding boosts in blood flow -- a discovery that stands in stark contrast to the adult mouse brain. This new study raises questions about how the growing human brain meets its energy needs, as well as how best to track brain development with fMRI, which relies on blood-flow changes to map neuronal activity. The research could also provide critical insights for improving care for infants.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Human Frontier Science Program, Kavli Foundation

Contact: Anne Holden
The Zuckerman Institute at Columbia University

Public Release: 21-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
How squash agriculture spread bees in pre-Columbian North America
Using genetic markers, researchers have for the first time shown how cultivating a specific crop led to the expansion of a pollinator species. In this case, the researchers found that the spread of a bee species in pre-Columbian Central and North America was tied to the spread of squash agriculture.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 20-Jun-2016
Self-assembling icosahedral protein designed
Researchers have designed and produced a self-assembling protein shell shaped like an icosahedron -- similar to those that encapsulate viruses. The achievement may open new avenues for engineering cargo-containing nano-cages to package and deliver drugs and vaccines directly into cells, or building small reactors to catalyze biochemical reactions. The shell is also amenable to genetic fusion, such as the addition of fluorescent proteins.
Howard Hughes Medical Instititute, JRC Visitors Program, National Science Foundation, National Cancer Institute, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, National Institutes of Health, US Public Health Services

Contact: Leila Gray
University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine

Public Release: 20-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Researchers find Highland East Asian origin for prehistoric Himalayan populations
In a collaborative study by the University of Oklahoma, University of Chicago, University of California, Merced, and Uppsala University, researchers conduct the first ancient DNA investigation of the Himalayan arc, generating genomic data for eight individuals ranging in time from the earliest known human settlements to the establishment of the Tibetan Empire. The findings demonstrate that the genetic make-up of high-altitude Himalayan populations has remained remarkably stable despite cultural transitions and exposure to outside populations through trade.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, National Geographic Society, Henry Luce Foundation, Samsung Scholarship, The North Face and Field Museum

Contact: Jana Smith
University of Oklahoma

Public Release: 20-Jun-2016
International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA 2016)
RedEye could let your phone see 24-7
Rice University researchers have just the thing for information overload: image-processing technology that sees all and remembers only what it should. RedEye, which was unveiled today at ISCA 2016 in Seoul, South Korea, could allow computers to continuously see what their owners see.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 20-Jun-2016
Earth and Space Science
Research aims to make water-cycle modeling data more accessible
Improved publication strategy for authors who use hydrological modeling software will make model data easier for readers to understand and reuse, according to an international team of researchers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 20-Jun-2016
Nature Chemistry
Tailored DNA shifts electrons into the 'fast lane'
DNA molecules don't just code our genetic instructions. They also have the unique ability to conduct electricity and self-assemble into well-defined shapes, making them potential candidates for building low-cost nanoelectronic devices. A study by a team of researchers from Duke University and Arizona State University shows how DNA sequences can be manipulated to turn these ribbon-shaped molecules into electron 'highways,' allowing electricity to flow more easily through the strand.
Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kara J. Manke
Duke University

Public Release: 20-Jun-2016
IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
New technique improves accuracy of computer vision technologies
Researchers have developed a new technique that improves the ability of computer vision technologies to better identify and separate objects in an image, a process called segmentation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 20-Jun-2016
Newborn exoplanet discovered around young star
A team of Caltech-led researchers has discovered the youngest fully-formed exoplanet ever detected.
NSF/Graduate Research Fellowship, NASA, NASA/Office of Space Science

Contact: Whitney Clavin
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 20-Jun-2016
Nature Geoscience
New analysis reveals large-scale motion around San Andreas Fault System
By carefully analyzing the data recorded by the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory's GPS array researchers from the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UHM), University of Washington and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) discovered nearly 125 mile-wide 'lobes' of uplift and subsidence -- a few millimeters of motion each year -- straddling the San Andreas Fault System. This large scale motion was previously predicted in models but until now had not been documented.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Marcie Grabowski
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 20-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Controlling light: New protection for photosynthetic organisms
Scientists at Washington University in St. Louis have discovered a previously unknown strategy photosynthetic organisms use to protect themselves from the dangers of excessive light, providing further insight into photosynthesis and opening up new avenues for engineering this process, which underlies the global food chain.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Diana Lutz
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 20-Jun-2016
Discovery of newborn exoplanet could help explain planetary evolution
A team of international researchers have discovered the youngest fully formed exoplanet ever detected, orbiting a young star 500 light years from Earth.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Duncan Sandes
University of Exeter

Public Release: 20-Jun-2016
Nature Microbiology
Tiny alpaca-derived antibodies point to targets preventing viral infection
Using tiny, alpaca-derived, single-domain antibody fragments, Whitehead Institute scientists have developed a method to perturb cellular processes in mammalian cells, allowing them to tease apart the roles that individual proteins play in these pathways. With improved knowledge of protein activity, scientists can better understand not only basic biology but also how disease corrupts cellular function and identify potential therapeutics to rectify these aberrations.
National Institutes of Health, Fujifilm/MediVector, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Nicole Giese Rura
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research

Public Release: 18-Jun-2016
ASM Microbe 2016
Ongoing monitoring of Legionella in Flint in the wake of the drinking water crisis
Research presented at the ASM Microbe meeting suggests that microbial water quality issues of Flint drinking water are improving, based on recent testing in March 2016, but that continued vigilance is in order. The research, performed by the Flint Water Study team at Virginia Tech, found that levels of DNA markers for Legionella have decreased throughout Flint since October 2015 before the water change, but did confirm that pathogenic forms of the bacteria, including L. pneumophila, were culturable at some sampling points.
National Science Foundation, The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and Virginia Tech Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science

Contact: Aleea Khan
American Society for Microbiology

Public Release: 17-Jun-2016
2016 Symposium on VLSI Technology and Circuits
World's first 1,000-processor chip
A microchip containing 1,000 independent programmable processors has been designed by a team at the University of California, Davis, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. The energy-efficient 'KiloCore' chip has a maximum computation rate of 1.78 trillion instructions per second and contains 621 million transistors.
US Department of Defense, National Science Foundation

Contact: Andy Fell
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 17-Jun-2016
American Naturalist
New lizard found in Dominican Republic
A University of Toronto-led team has reported the discovery of a new lizard in the Dominican Republic, strengthening a long-held theory that communities of lizards can evolve almost identically on separate islands. The chameleon-like lizard -- a Greater Antillean anole dubbed Anolis landestoyi for the naturalist who first spotted and photographed it -- is one of the first new anole species found in the Dominican Republic in decades.
National Science Foundation, Harvard University's David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies

Contact: Sean Bettam
University of Toronto

Public Release: 17-Jun-2016
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Breaking out: How black hole jets punch out of their galaxies
New simulations of the jets produced by rotating supermassive black holes in the cores of galaxies show how powerful ones force their way through surrounding gas and drill out of the galaxy, channeling hot gas into the interstellar medium. Weaker jets stall, dumping their hot gas inside and heating up the entire galaxy. Stalled jets may be part of the black hole feedback mechanism that periodically halts inflow of gas feeding the black hole.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Sanders
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 17-Jun-2016
Nature Communications
Discovery of gold nanocluster 'double' hints at other shape-changing particles
Researchers discovered an entirely unexpected atomic arrangement of Gold-144, a molecule-sized nanogold cluster whose structure had been theoretically predicted but never confirmed.
Department of Energy Office of Science, National Science Foundation, Villum Foundation, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Colorado State University, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Ariana Tantillo
DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory

Public Release: 16-Jun-2016
RIT and UW-Madison study high-tech workforce, 21st century competencies
An NSF-funded study exploring how high-tech employees learn to develop competencies relevant to the workplace is the focus of a collaboration between Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. RIT researchers are investigating how and when students and employees learn transferable skills that are critical for success in school, life and work, and how educators and employers value and cultivate these skills.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Susan Gawlowicz
Rochester Institute of Technology

Public Release: 16-Jun-2016
Researchers to study how microbes become 'fungi in ant's clothing'
A pair of grants worth more than $2 million will enable Penn State researchers to study how microbial parasites control the behaviors and characteristics of their animal hosts.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 16-Jun-2016
Study of flowers' co-evolution with bees and hummingbirds earns professor major grants
With a pair of grants from the National Science Foundation together totaling $2.5 million, a researcher at the University of Kansas is investigating how natural selection has enabled flowers to shift strategies from bee-pollination to hummingbird pollination, contributing to this stunning diversity in flower form.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Brendan Lynch
University of Kansas

Showing releases 576-600 out of 883.

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