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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 576-600 out of 1144.

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Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Journal of American College of Surgeons
A pair of medical magnets shows promise as a new tool for creating an anastomosis
An experimental device that employs a pair of magnets offers surgeons a new safe and simple alternative to standard methods for creating an anastomosis for the first time in nearly 50 years.
Mount Zion Health fund, UCSF Pediatric Device Consortium, National Science Foundation

Contact: Sally Garneski
American College of Surgeons

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics
Understanding Caribbean mammal extinctions of the past spurs renewed focus on conservation
A Johns Hopkins paleontologist and her collaborative team of scientists report they have clear evidence that the arrival of humans and subsequent human activity throughout the islands of the Caribbean were likely the primary causes of the extinction of native mammal species there. The evidence, they say, highlights the need for urgent human intervention to protect the native mammal species still inhabiting the region.
National Science Foundation, Stanford University, Royal Society, Explorers Club, American Association of Physical Anthropologists

Contact: Rachel Butch
Johns Hopkins Medicine

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Study finds link between malnutrition, alcoholism and tuberculosis in India
A new study reveals a striking link between malnutrition, heavy alcohol use and tuberculosis in southern India.
US Civilian Research & Development Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Gina DiGravio
Boston University School of Medicine

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
JAHA: Journal of the American Heart Association
Brain activity may be predictor of stress-related cardiovascular risk
A pattern of brain activity that occurs during psychological stress may predict bodily reactions, such as surges in our blood pressure, that increase risk for cardiovascular disease. People who have exaggerated responses to stressors, like large rises in blood pressure or heart rate, are at greater risk of developing hypertension and premature death from cardiovascular disease, researchers say.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Akeem Ranmal
American Heart Association

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Chemists get step closer to replicating nature with assembly of new 3-D structures
A team of New York University chemists has created a series of three-dimensional structures that take a step closer to resembling those found in nature.
National Science Foundation

Contact: James Devitt
New York University

Public Release: 23-Aug-2017
American Chemical Society 254th National Meeting & Exposition
Fatal attractions for disease-carrying mosquitoes
ISCA Technologies, a California-based biotech firm, is working on several innovations to stop outbreaks of malaria-spreading mosquitos before they occur by using pheromones and other naturally occurring attractants.
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Agriculture, US Department of Defense

Contact: David Danelski
ISCA Technologies Inc.

Public Release: 22-Aug-2017
Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Ancient Earth's hot interior created 'graveyard' of continental slabs
MIT geologists have found that ancient Earth's hotter interior created a "graveyard" of continental slabs, as higher mantle temperatures than today caused subducting tectonic plates to sink all the way to the Earth's core.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ms. Karl-Lydie Jean-Baptiste
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 22-Aug-2017
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Study finds that gravity, 'mechanical loading' are key to cartilage development
Mechanical loading is required for creating cartilage that is then turned to bone; however, little is known about cartilage development in the absence of gravity. Now, in a study led by the University of Missouri, bioengineers have determined that microgravity may inhibit cartilage formation. Findings reveal that fracture healing for astronauts in space, as well as patients on bed rest here on Earth, could be compromised in the absence of mechanical loading.
National Institutes of Health, National Space Biomedical Research Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeff Sossamon
University of Missouri-Columbia

Public Release: 22-Aug-2017
UMass Amherst researcher receives $1.8 million to create Center for Autonomous Chemistry
University of Massachusetts Amherst chemist Sankaran 'Thai' Thayumanavan has received a three-year, $1.8 million grant from the National Science Foundation to create a multi-university Center for Autonomous Chemistry, where he and colleagues, including chemist Vince Rotello, will seek to design artificial self-activating systems, or 'automatic control as nature does it,' in Thayumanavan's words.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Janet Lathrop
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 22-Aug-2017
Lab on a Chip
Researchers devise microreactor to study formation of methane hydrate
Researchers at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering are using a novel means of studying how methane and water form methane hydrate that allows them to examine discrete steps in the process faster and more efficiently.
Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, National Science Foundation

Contact: Karl Greenberg
NYU Tandon School of Engineering

Public Release: 22-Aug-2017
International Journal of Robotics Research
Designing custom robots in a matter of minutes
Researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) created a system called 'Interactive Robogami' that lets you design a robot in minutes, and then 3-D-print and assemble it in as little as four hours.
National Science Foundation's Expeditions in Computing program

Contact: Adam Conner-Simons
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, CSAIL

Public Release: 22-Aug-2017
ACM SIGCOMM conference
Accelerating the mobile web: 'Vroom' software could double its speed
Despite that most web traffic today comes from smartphones and tablets, the mobile web remains inconveniently slow. Even on fast 4G networks, a page takes 14 seconds to load on average -- an eternity in today's connected world.
Google Faculty Research Award, National Science Foundation, MIT Center for Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing

Contact: Nicole Moore
University of Michigan

Public Release: 22-Aug-2017
Nature Geoscience
How continents were recycled
Researchers from Germany and Switzerland have used computer simulations to analyse how plate tectonics have evolved on Earth over the last three billion years. They show that tectonic processes have changed in the course of the time, and demonstrate how those changes contributed to the formation and destruction of continents. The model reconstructs how present-day continents, oceans and the atmosphere may have evolved.
German Academic Exchange Service, European Comission, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Priyadarshi Chowdhury
Ruhr-University Bochum

Public Release: 21-Aug-2017
Nature Genetics
Penn biologists show how plants turn off genes they don't need
New research led by University of Pennsylvania biologists and published this week in the journal Nature Genetics has identified small sequences in plant DNA that act as signposts for shutting off gene activity, directing the placement of proteins that silence gene expression.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Katherine Unger Baillie
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 21-Aug-2017
Nature Geoscience
Hidden river once flowed beneath Antarctic ice
Using the most precise seafloor maps ever created of Antarctica's Ross Sea, Rice University researchers have discovered a long-dead river system that once flowed beneath Antarctica's ice and influenced how ice streams melted after Earth's last ice age. The research appears online this week in Nature Geoscience.
National Science Foundation, Swedish Research Council

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Public Release: 21-Aug-2017
Journal of Virology
Johns Hopkins materials scientists probe a protein's role in speeding Ebola's spread
Scientists have pinpointed how a tiny protein seems to make the deadly Ebola virus particularly contagious.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Phil Sneiderman
Johns Hopkins University

Public Release: 21-Aug-2017
PLOS Pathogens
Researchers find an alternative mode of bacterial quorum sensing
Researchers have revealed the existence of a new quorum-sensing molecule that increases the virulence of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Life Science Research Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship through the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

Contact: Catherine Zandonella
Princeton University

Public Release: 21-Aug-2017
Plant Cell
Plants under heat stress must act surprisingly quickly to survive
In The Plant Cell, UMass Amherst molecular biologist Elizabeth Vierling reports that heat-stressed plants not only need to produce new proteins to survive the stress, they need to make them right away. 'We found that a delay of even six hours of new protein translation will inhibit optimal growth and reproduction. The plants might not outright die, but they are severely impaired without the rapid synthesis of these new proteins.'
National Science Foundation, Massachusetts Life Sciences Center

Contact: Janet Lathrop
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 21-Aug-2017
International Conference on Machine Learning
Computer algorithm automatically recognizes soccer formations and defensive strategies
Though soccer players have assigned roles, it's routine for players to swap positions during the course of a game, or even of a single play. Other players and most fans recognize when this occurs and now, thanks to new work on multi-agent imitation learning, so can a computer.
National Science Foundation, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Bloomberg, Northrop Grumman

Contact: Jennifer Liu
Disney Research

Public Release: 21-Aug-2017
Nature Communications
Spaser can detect, kill circulating tumor cells to prevent cancer metastases, study finds
A nanolaser known as the spaser can serve as a super-bright, water-soluble, biocompatible probe capable of finding metastasized cancer cells in the blood stream and then killing these cells, according to a new research study.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, US Office of Naval Research

Contact: LaTina Emerson
Georgia State University

Public Release: 21-Aug-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Polarization for controversial scientific issues increases with more education
A commonly proposed solution to help diffuse the political and religious polarization surrounding controversial scientific issues like evolution or climate change is education. However, Carnegie Mellon University researchers found that the opposite is true: people's beliefs about scientific topics that are associated with their political or religious identities actually become increasingly polarized with education, as measured by years in school, science classes, and science literacy.
National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship, National Science Foundation, Riksbankens Jubileumsfond

Contact: Shilo Rea
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 21-Aug-2017
Nature Neuroscience
Research reveals 'exquisite selectivity' of neuronal wiring in the cerebral cortex
In a study appearing today in Nature Neuroscience, a team from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory uses advanced technologies to illuminate the connectivity pattern of chandelier cells, a distinctive kind of inhibitory cell type in the mammalian brain. They reveal for the first time how this candelabra-shaped cell interacts in a highly selective way with hundreds of excitatory cells in its neighborhood, receiving information from some, imparting information to others.
National Institutes of Health, CSHL Robertson Neuroscience Fund, Hope for Depression Research Foundation, NRSA F30 Medical Scientist Predoctoral Fellowships, Brain & Behavior Research Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Peter Tarr
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Public Release: 21-Aug-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease
Duke scientists found a gene variant that affects cholesterol levels also could increase the risk of contracting typhoid fever. A common cholesterol-lowering drug could protect animal models against Salmonella Typhi, the culprit behind the potentially deadly infection. The findings give insight into the mechanisms that govern human susceptibility to infectious disease and point to possible avenues to protect against pathogens -- like Salmonella or Ebola -- whose entry into host cells is regulated by cholesterol.
Duke University Whitehead Scholarship, Butler Pioneer Award, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation pre-doctoral fellowship, Duke MGM SURE Fellowship, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust

Contact: Karl Bates
Duke University

Public Release: 18-Aug-2017
Astrophysical Journal
OU astrophysicist predicts detached, eclipsing white dwarfs to merge into exotic star
A University of Oklahoma astrophysicist, Mukremin Kilic, and his team have discovered two detached, eclipsing double white dwarf binaries with orbital periods of 40 and 46 minutes, respectively. White dwarfs are the remnants of Sun-like stars, many of which are found in pairs, or binaries.
Smithsonian Institution, National Science Foundation, National Atmospheric and Space Administration

Contact: Jana Smith
University of Oklahoma

Public Release: 18-Aug-2017
Nature Photonics
New bioimaging technique is fast and economical
A new approach to optical imaging makes it possible to quickly and economically monitor multiple molecular interactions in a large area of living tissue -- such as an organ or a small animal; technology that could have applications in medical diagnosis, guided surgery, or pre-clinical drug testing.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Mary Martialay
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Showing releases 576-600 out of 1144.

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