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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 601-625 out of 934.

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Public Release: 5-Jan-2017
Global and Planetary Change
Great Barrier Reef almost drowned; climate implications
The first comprehensive analysis of the Great Barrier Reef at a time of rapid sea-level rise during the beginning of the Last Interglacial found it almost died. The Ph.D. research shows the reef can be resilient but questions remain about cumulative impacts. The research also provides an accurate identification of the age of the fossil reef that grew before the modern Great Barrier Reef, some 129,000-121,000 years ago.
Australian Research Council, Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden, and National Science Foundation

Contact: Vivienne Reiner
University of Sydney

Public Release: 5-Jan-2017
Global Change Biology
Arctic sea ice loss impacts beluga whale migration
A new University of Washington study finds the annual migration of some beluga whales in Alaska is altered by sea ice changes in the Arctic, while other belugas do not appear to be affected.
National Science Foundation, NASA, UW School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, National Science Foundation's Arctic Observing Network, Russian-American Long-term Census of the Arctic

Contact: Michelle Ma
University of Washington

Public Release: 5-Jan-2017
Applications in Plant Sciences
Measuring trees with the speed of sound
Foresters and researchers are using sound to look inside living trees. A new study in Applications in Plant Sciences presents methods for use of sonic tomography, which measures wood decay by sending sound waves through tree trunks. The new study describes optimum placement of the sensors to avoid aberrant tomography results for the non-model tree shapes that populate the tropics and details how to analyze the tomograms to quantify areas of decayed and damaged wood.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Beth Parada
Botanical Society of America

Public Release: 5-Jan-2017
Research sheds new light on high-altitude settlement in Tibet
Early Tibetan Plateau settlers managed to survive at high elevation at least 7,400 years ago, before the development of an agricultural economy between 5,200-3,600 years ago.
Austrian Science Fund, National Science Foundation

Contact: Randy Haas
University of Wyoming

Public Release: 5-Jan-2017
Nature Nanotechnology
Captured on video: DNA nanotubes build a bridge between 2 molecular posts
Researchers have coaxed DNA nanotubes to assemble themselves into bridge-like structures arched between two molecular landmarks on the surface of a lab dish.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Simons Foundation

Contact: Phil Sneiderman
Johns Hopkins University

Public Release: 5-Jan-2017
High-tech mooring will measure beneath Antarctic ice
Professor Elizabeth Shadwick of William & Mary's Virginia Institute of Marine Science has deployed a high-tech mooring beneath the seasonally ice-covered waters around Antarctica to better understand ocean acidification in polar regions.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Malmquist
Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Public Release: 5-Jan-2017
Density functional theory took a wrong turn recently
A new study by scientists from A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Moscow, Russia, and Temple University, Philadelphia, Pa., USA shows that the density functional theory, the bread and butter of modern computational chemistry, has significantly deviated in the recent years from the theoretical foundations it was built upon. The results were published in Science.
Russian Science Foundation, National Science Foundation, Humboldt Foundation

Contact: Ivan S. Bushmarinov
Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds

Public Release: 5-Jan-2017
South American fossil tomatillos show nightshades evolved earlier than thought
Delicate fossil remains of tomatillos found in Patagonia, Argentina, show that this branch of the economically important family that also includes potatoes, peppers, tobacco, petunias and tomatoes existed 52 million years ago, long before the dates previously ascribed to these species, according to an international team of scientists.
National Science Foundation, National Geographic Society, David and Lucile Packard Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
Molecular Cell
Scientists learn how to ramp up microbes' ability to make memories
Researchers have identified a mutation that prompts bacterial cells to acquire genetic memories 100 times more frequently than they do naturally. This discovery provides a powerful research tool and could bring scientists one step closer to developing DNA-based data storage devices.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rita Allen Foundation, Irma T. Hirschl Trust, Sinsheimer Foundation, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Paul Allen Foundation

Contact: Katherine Fenz
Rockefeller University

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
Science Advances
Study finds potential instability in Atlantic Ocean water circulation system
One of the world's largest ocean circulation systems may not be as stable as today's weather models predict, according to a new study. In fact, changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation -- the same deep-water ocean current featured in the movie 'The Day After Tomorrow' -- could occur quite abruptly, in geologic terms, the study says.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China

Contact: Jim Shelton
Yale University

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
New technique uses immune cells to deliver anti-cancer drugs
Some researchers are working to discover new, safer ways to deliver cancer-fighting drugs to tumors without damaging healthy cells. Others are finding ways to boost the body's own immune system to attack cancer cells. Researchers at Penn State have combined the two approaches by taking biodegradable polymer nanoparticles encapsulated with cancer-fighting drugs and incorporating them into immune cells to create a smart, targeted system to attack cancers of specific types.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scripps Florida scientists expand toolbox to study cellular function
Scientists on the Florida campus of the Scripps Research Institute have developed a new tool for studying the molecular details of protein structure.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Madeline McCurry-Schmidt
Scripps Research Institute

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
Scientific Reports
Sea sponges offer clues to how human-made structures can resist buckling
Brown University engineers looked to nature to find a shape that could improve all kinds of slender structures, from building columns to bicycle spokes -- they found an answer in sea sponges.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Stacey
Brown University

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
The Journal of the Optical Society of America B
Feature issue on nonlinear optics provides insight into field's latest ideas
A special feature of The Journal of the Optical Society of America B has been published called Nonlinear optics near the fundamental limit. It contains articles ranging from the fundamental, first principles analysis of the nonlinear response and its origins, to experimental work and is edited by Timothy J. Atherton of Tufts University, Ivan Biaggio of Lehigh University, and Koen Clays of KU Leuven, Belgium.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lori Friedman
Lehigh University

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
Nature Communications
Scientists discover a molecular motor has a 'gear' for directional switching
A study just published in Nature Communications offers a new understanding of the complex cellular machinery that animal and fungi cells use to ensure normal cell division, and scientists say it could one day lead to new treatment approaches for certain types of cancers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Weihong Qiu
Oregon State University

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
229th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society
Fast radio burst tied to distant dwarf galaxy, and perhaps magnetar
Since first detected 10 years ago, fast radio bursts have puzzled astronomers. Unlike pulsars, they flash irregularly, most only once, and only for milliseconds. And they seem to come from outside the galaxy, meaning they are very energetic. A team of astronomers has now localized the only repeating burst, to a distant dwarf galaxy. UC Berkeley's Casey Law, who created the rapid data collection and analysis software on the VLA, sees a connection to magnetars.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Sanders
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
229th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society
Precise location, distance provide breakthrough in study of fast radio bursts
Lone repeater among the mysterious Fast Radio Bursts is precisely located, enabling a world-wide team to find its host galaxy and determine its distance, marking a major advance in understanding these objects.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
280 million-year-old fossil reveals origins of chimaeroid fishes
High-definition CT scans of the fossilized skull of a 280 million-year-old fish reveal the origin of chimaeras, a group of cartilaginous fish related to sharks. Analysis of the brain case of Dwykaselachus oosthuizeni, a shark-like fossil from South Africa, shows telltale structures of the brain, major cranial nerves, nostrils and inner ear belonging to modern-day chimaeras.
National Science Foundation, National Research Foundation/ Department of Science and Technology South African Centre of Excellence in Palaeosciences, and NRF African Origins Programme

Contact: Matt Wood
University of Chicago Medical Center

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
Science Robotics
Manufacturing platform makes intricate biocompatible micromachines
Columbia Engineering researchers have developed a way to manufacture microscale-sized machines from biomaterials that can safely be implanted in the body. Working with hydrogels, they have invented a new technique that stacks the soft material in layers to make devices that have three-dimensional, freely moving parts. The study demonstrates a fast manufacturing method they call 'implantable microelectromechanical systems.'
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Holly Evarts
Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
Songbirds divorce, flee, fail to reproduce due to suburban sprawl
New University of Washington research finds that for some songbirds, urban sprawl is kicking them out of their territory, forcing divorce and stunting their ability to find new mates and reproduce successfully, even after relocating.
National Science Foundation, University of Washington

Contact: Michelle Ma
University of Washington

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nanowire 'inks' enable paper-based printable electronics
Thin films made from silver nanowires are 4,000 times more conductive than films made from other nanoparticle shapes, like spheres or microflakes, says a new study by Duke University researchers. The results indicate that conductive 'inks' made from silver nanowires may create functioning electronic circuits without applying high temperatures, enabling printable electronics on heat-sensitive materials like paper or plastic.
National Science Foundation, Duke Chemistry GAANN Fellowship

Contact: Kara Manke
Duke University

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
Earth's Future
Tenfold jump in green tech needed to meet global emissions targets
The global spread of green technologies must quicken significantly to avoid future rebounds in climate-warming emissions, a Duke study shows. Based on the new calculations, the Paris Agreement's warming target of 2 degrees C won't be met unless clean technologies are developed and implemented at rates 10 times faster than in the past. Radically new strategies to implement technological advances are needed.
National Science Foundation, Duke WISeNet Program

Contact: Tim Lucas
Duke University

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
Nature Climate Change
Will climate change leave tropical birds hung out to dry?
The future of the red-capped manakin and other tropical birds in Panama looks bleak. A University of Illinois research project spanning more than three decades and simulating another five decades analyzes how changes in rainfall will affect bird populations. The results show that for 19 of the 20 species included in the study, there may be significantly fewer birds if conditions become dryer.
National Science Foundation, DOD/Legacy Resource Program, USDA/National Institute of Food and Agriculture, University of Illinois, and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Contact: Debra Levey Larson
University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rice U probes ways to turn cement's weakness to strength
Rice University scientists show how cement particles can handle stress by gradually passing it from one layer to the next and turning weakness to strength.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
Nature Communications
One step closer to reality: Devices that convert heat into electricity
The same researchers who pioneered the use of a quantum mechanical effect to convert heat into electricity have figured out how to make their technique work in a form more suitable to industry.
National Science Foundation, US Army's Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative

Contact: Matt Schutte
Ohio State University

Showing releases 601-625 out of 934.

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