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Back to EurekAlert! A Service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 601-625 out of 872.

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Public Release: 26-Oct-2016
Science Advances
Warmth under climate change has cascading effect, destabilizing forest ant communities
Adding warmth predicted in climate-change models destabilized forest ant communities east of the Appalachian Mountains. The the loss of stability makes communities less resilient and slower to rebound when disturbed, a possible harbinger of disruption to the broader ecosystem.
US Department of Energy Program for Ecosystem Research, National Science Foundation Dimensions of Biodiversity

Contact: Kevin Mayhood
Case Western Reserve University

Public Release: 26-Oct-2016
Science Translational Medicine
Restoring the sense of touch in amputees using natural signals of the nervous system
Scientists at the University of Chicago and Case Western Reserve University have found a way to produce realistic sensations of touch in two human amputees by directly stimulating the nervous system.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, US Department of Veterans Affairs, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Matt Wood
University of Chicago Medical Center

Public Release: 25-Oct-2016
Cornell professors to launch NSF-funded space experiments
Cornell University engineering professors Paul Steen and Michel Louge have both received funding from the National Science Foundation and NASA's CASIS program to send experiments to the International Space Station.
National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Contact: Tom Fleischman
Cornell University

Public Release: 25-Oct-2016
Atmospheric Environment
Indian roadside refuse fires produce toxic rainbow
Samples of smoke particles emanating from burning roadside trash piles in India have shown that their chemical composition and toxicity are very bad for human health. A person standing next to one of these fires might inhale a dose of toxins 1,000 times greater than that found in the ambient air -- reaching getting a daily dose limit in just one minute. Variation found between sites offers insights on mitigating the worst effects.
United States Environmental Protection Agency, National Science Foundation

Contact: Ken Kingery
Duke University

Public Release: 25-Oct-2016
NYIT receives grant for smartphone security research
Researchers led by NYIT will use a two-year NSF grant to investigate practical energy-efficient, privacy-preserving smartphone user authentication techniques.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Libby Sullivan
New York Institute of Technology

Public Release: 25-Oct-2016
49th Annual IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture (Micro-49)
Researchers find weakness in common computer chip
Researchers from Binghamton University, State University of New York and University of California, Riverside have found a weakness in the Haswell central processing unit (CPU) components that makes common computer operating systems vulnerable to malicious attacks. Computer hackers could take control of individual, company and government computers if a weak point in address space layout randomization (ASLR) software is exploited by manipulating a CPU's branch predictor, a piece of hardware designed to improve program performance.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dmitry Ponomarev
Binghamton University

Public Release: 25-Oct-2016
The Plant Cell
Researchers identify genes for 'Help me!' aromas from corn
When caterpillars attack, corn plants release volatile scent compounds, called terpenes, that attract parasitic wasps, whose larvae consume the caterpillar from the inside out. Not all corn varieties are equally effective at making terpenes, so researchers identified the genes responsible, so that breeders can create varieties of more caterpillar-resistant corn.
German Research Foundation, National Science Foundation, US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service

Contact: Patricia Waldron
Boyce Thompson Institute

Public Release: 25-Oct-2016
Psychological Science
Here's when powerful people have trouble making a decision
Although powerful people often tend to decide and act quickly, they become more indecisive than others when the decisions are toughest to make, a new study suggests.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Geoff Durso
Ohio State University

Public Release: 25-Oct-2016
New research on ancient Alpine rocks may unveil clues to Earth's evolution
High up in the Western Alps is a swath of rocks that could provide new insight into what happens deep in the Earth's subsurface. A new $4.2 million initiative, known as the ExTerra Field Institute and Research Endeavor (E-FIRE), will allow researchers from nine US institutions to conduct in-depth analyses of these rocks, which will improve our understanding of the forces governing activity beneath the crust and help us better understand the Earth's evolution.
National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 25-Oct-2016
Developmental Psychology
Many kids not ready for kindergarten
Many children are still learning to control their behavior as they enter kindergarten and may need educational support to develop that critical skill, indicates one of the most conclusive studies to date of early childhood self-regulation.
US Department of Education, National Science Foundation, NIH/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Contact: Andy Henion
Michigan State University

Public Release: 25-Oct-2016
Nature Microbiology
Deep down fracking wells, microbial communities thrive
Microbes have a remarkable ability to adapt to the extreme conditions in fracking wells. New finding help scientists understand what is happening inside fracking wells and could offer insight into processes such as corrosion and methane production.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Contact: Tom Rickey
DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Public Release: 25-Oct-2016
Arousal exerts an unconscious influence on what we see
A new study from UCL researchers finds that subtle, unconscious increases in arousal -- indicated by a faster heartbeat and dilated pupils -- shape our confidence for visual experiences.
Wellcome Trust, European Research Council and Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Chris Lane
University College London

Public Release: 25-Oct-2016
Nature Communications
Enormous dome in central Andes driven by huge magma body beneath it
A new analysis of the topography of the central Andes shows the uplifting of the Earth's second highest continental plateau was driven in part by a huge zone of melted rock in the crust, known as a magma body. The Altiplano-Puna plateau is a high, dry region in the central Andes, with vast plains punctuated by spectacular volcanoes. Researchers used remote sensing data and topographic modeling techniques to reveal an enormous dome in the plateau.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Stephens
University of California - Santa Cruz

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Cytomegalovirus infection relies on human RNA-binding protein
Viruses hijack the molecular machinery in human cells to survive and replicate, often damaging those host cells in the process. Researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine discovered that, for cytomegalovirus (CMV), this process relies on a human protein called CPEB1. The study provides a potential new target for the development of CMV therapies.
National Institutes of Health, California Institute of Regenerative Medicine, National Science Foundation, Myotonic Dystrophy Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Contact: Heather Buschman
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Atom-by-atom growth chart for shells helps decode past climate
For the first time scientists can see how the shells of tiny marine organisms grow atom-by-atom, a new study reports. The advance provides new insights into the mechanisms of biomineralization and will improve our understanding of environmental change in Earth's past.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Andy Fell
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Royal Society Open Science
Researchers find zebrafish want to hang out with moving 3-D robotic models of themselves
Zebrafish engage more with 3-D moving robotic models of themselves than with other stimuli. A team of NYU Tandon researchers devised a controllable, customizable robotic platform to more accurately study freshwater fish behavior. Zebrafish are highly versatile and increasingly taking the place of more complex animals in behavioral studies. Understanding their social behavior may help researchers explore mechanisms behind human disorders like anxiety, addiction, autism, and schizophrenia.
National Science Foundation, Mitsui USA Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Hamilton
NYU Tandon School of Engineering

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Trends in Ecology and Evolution
Predicting climate impacts on ecosystems will require scientists to widen the lens
In a new paper, two Yale scholars make the case that overly simplistic studies on the climate impacts on ecosystems avoid the inherent complexity and interconnectedness of natural systems. They propose a greater emphasis on scholarship that explores how climate change will affect interactions between all food web components.
Yale Climate and Energy Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Dennehy
Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Parasitic plants may form weapons out of genes stolen from hosts
Sneaky parasitic weeds may be able to steal genes from the plants they are attacking and then use those genes against the host plant, according to a team of scientists.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Agriculture

Contact: Matt Swayne
Penn State

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Semi-volatile organic compounds diffuse between atmospheric particles
Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University's Neil M. Donahue have shown that semi-volatile organic compounds can readily diffuse into the billions of tiny atmospheric particles that inhabit the air, easily moving among them. The findings, published in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), provide greater understanding into how organic particles behave in the atmosphere and impact climate and health.
National Science Foundation, Wallace Research Foundation, US EPA STAR Program, Schlumberger Foundation/Faculty for the Future Fellowship

Contact: Jocelyn Duffy
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
Study: People can tell if they are voting on a secure system
'Rigged' election rhetoric in the headlines aims to cast doubt about the security of the American voting system; however, people have a sense of whether a voting system is secure, according to new research from Rice University.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scientists trace plant hormone pathway back 450 million years
Purdue scientists got a glimpse into more than 450 million years of evolution by tracing the function of a hormone pathway that has been passed along and co-opted by new species since the first plants came onto land.
National Science Foundation, Australian Research Council, King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology of King Saud University, Deutsche Forshungsgemeinshaft

Contact: Jody Banks
Purdue University

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Nature Geoscience
What the ancient CO2 record may mean for future climate change
A team of researchers led by UC Davis reconstructed the ancient atmospheric carbon dioxide record from 330 to 260 million years ago, when ice last covered Earth's polar regions and large rainforests expanded throughout the tropics, leaving as their signature the world's coal resources. The team's deep-time reconstruction reveals previously unknown fluctuations of atmospheric carbon dioxide at levels projected for the 21st century and highlights the potential impact the loss of tropical forests can have on climate.
National Science Foundation, European Research Council

Contact: Kat Kerlin
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Nature Materials
3-D-printed organ-on-a-chip with integrated sensors
Researchers have made the first entirely 3-D-printed organ-on-a-chip with integrated sensing. Built by a fully automated, digital manufacturing process, the 3-D-printed heart-on-a-chip can be quickly fabricated and customized. This new approach to manufacturing may one day allow researchers to rapidly design organs-on-chips, also known as microphysiological systems, that match the properties of a specific disease or even an individual patient's cells.
National Science Foundation, NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, US Army Research Laboratory, Harvard University Materials Research Science and Engineering

Contact: Leah Burrows
Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Nanometer-scale image reveals new details about formation of a marine shell
An atom-by-atom picture of a marine shell's first formation shows that magnesium and sodium ions may control how shells grow under different environmental conditions.
National Science Foundation, Department of Energy

Contact: Hannah Hickey
University of Washington

Public Release: 21-Oct-2016
Unusual quantum liquid on crystal surface could inspire future electronics
Researchers at Princeton University and the University of Texas-Austin found that electrons, when kept at very low temperatures where their quantum behaviors emerge, can spontaneously begin to travel in elliptical paths on the surface of a crystal of bismuth. The strange elliptical orbits correspond to the electrons being in different "valleys" of possible states created by the crystal. The findings could inform further research on a forward-looking strategy for electronics called "valleytronics."
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation through the Princeton Center for Complex Materials, US Army Research Office, Eric and Wendy Schmidt Transformative Technology Fund

Contact: Catherine Zandonella
Princeton University

Showing releases 601-625 out of 872.

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