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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 626-650 out of 1050.

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Public Release: 11-May-2017
Biological activity found to affect aerosols produced from sea spray
Chemists have discovered that tiny particulate matter called aerosols lofted into the atmosphere by sea spray and the bursting of bubbles at the ocean's surface are chemically altered by the presence of biological activity.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kim McDonald
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 10-May-2017
CHI 2017
Researchers develop software to convene rapid, on-demand 'flash organizations'
Flash organizations are a new crowdsourcing technique that enables anyone to assemble an entire organization from a paid crowdsourcing marketplace and lead that organization in pursuit of complex, open-ended goals.
National Science Foundation, Accenture Technology Labs, Microsoft FUSE Labs, Stanford Cyber Initiative, Stanford Institute for Research in the Social Sciences, Stanford Interdisciplinary Graduate Fellowship

Contact: Taylor Kubota, Stanford News Service
Stanford University

Public Release: 10-May-2017
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
In brain evolution, size matters -- most of the time
Which came first, overall bigger brains or larger brain regions that control specialized behaviors? Neuroscientists have debated this question for decades, but a new Cornell University study settles the score.
National Science Foundation, Frank M. Chapman Memorial Fund, American Ornithologists' Union, US-Hungarian Joint Scientific Fund

Contact: Daryl Lovell
Cornell University

Public Release: 10-May-2017
Astrophysical Journal
Image release: Telescopes team up for dramatic new look at the crab nebula
Multiwavelength image with VLA, Spitzer, Hubble, XMM-Newton, and Chandra observatories shows the 'whole picture' of the famous Crab Nebula supernova remnant, and provides astronomers with new insights into the object's complex physics.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 10-May-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Uncovering the answer to an age-old question: How do snowflakes form?
New research led by a Tufts University chemist has shed new light on ice crystal formation by combining an electron backscatter with a large single crystal ice model. In a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, scientists discovered that an ice crystal's flat sides are formed by a hexagon that is larger and consists of a central water molecule surrounded by six others in the same layer.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kalimah Knight
Tufts University

Public Release: 10-May-2017
Nature Communications
Scientists help thin-film ferroelectrics go extreme
Scientists have created the first-ever polarization gradient in thin-film ferroelectrics, greatly expanding the range of functional temperatures for a key material used in a variety of everyday applications. The discovery could pave the way for developing devices capable of supporting wireless communications in extreme environments.
US Department of Energy, Army Research Office, National Science Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Carnegie Institution for Science

Contact: Sarah Yang
DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Public Release: 10-May-2017
Antibiotic breakthrough: Team discovers how to overcome gram-negative bacterial defenses
Scientists report that they now know how to build a molecular Trojan horse that can penetrate gram-negative bacteria, solving a problem that for decades has stalled the development of effective new antibiotics against these increasingly drug-resistant microbes. The findings appear in the journal Nature.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, University of Illinois

Contact: Diana Yates
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 10-May-2017
Targeted, high-energy cancer treatments get a supercomputing boost
Radiation therapy shoots high-energy particles into the body to destroy or damage cancer cells, while sparing surrounding healthy tissue. New types of radiation systems are emerging that can better target cancer cells. These include proton beam therapy and MR-linac, which combines real-time imaging and radiation treatment in a single device. Scientists rely on supercomputers at the Texas Advanced Computing Center to virtually test, plan treatments, and understand the basic science of, these radiation therapies.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Cancer Prevention Research Institute of Texas, Elekta, State of Arizona

Contact: Aaron Dubrow
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 10-May-2017
Nature Communications
Rising temperatures threaten stability of Tibetan alpine grasslands
A warming climate could affect the stability of alpine grasslands in Asia's Tibetan Plateau, threatening the ability of farmers and herders to maintain the animals that are key to their existence, and potentially upsetting the ecology of an area in which important regional river systems originate, says a new study by researchers in China and the United States.
National Basic Research Program of China, National Nature Science Foundation of China, US National Science Foundation, 111 Project of China

Contact: John Toon
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 10-May-2017
Waves of lava seen in Io's largest volcanic crater
The most active volcanic crater in the solar system, Loki Patera on Jupiter's moon Io, is thought to be a lava lake that periodically brightens because of overturning lava. A UC Berkeley team regularly monitors Io, and took advantage of a rare 2015 event, Europa passing in front of Io, to map the surface of the lake in detail. They found evidence for two massive waves of overturning lava converging toward the lake's southeast corner.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Sanders
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 9-May-2017
Cornell University Library
Experiments show that a few self-driving cars can dramatically improve traffic flow
The presence of just a few autonomous vehicles can eliminate the stop-and-go driving of the human drivers in traffic, along with the accident risk and fuel inefficiency it causes, according to new research. The finding indicates that self-driving cars and related technology may be even closer to revolutionizing traffic control than previously thought.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Daniel B. Work
University of Illinois College of Engineering

Public Release: 9-May-2017
Nature Materials
Materials bend as they 'breathe' under high temperatures
Researchers develop high-temperature systems based on metal oxides that 'breathe' oxygen in and out, that could be used to control devices inside nuclear reactors or jet engines.
DOE/Office of Basic Energy Science, National Science Foundation MRSEC Program

Contact: Ms. Karl-Lydie Jean-Baptiste
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 9-May-2017
Astronomical Journal
Two James Webb instruments are best suited for exoplanet atmospheres
The best way to study the atmospheres of distant worlds with the James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled to launch in late 2018, will combine two of its infrared instruments, according to a team of astronomers.
National Science Foundation, Kavli Summer Program in Astrophysics, NASA Astrobiology Program Early Career Collaboration Award, NASA Hubble Fellowship

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 9-May-2017
Men and women show equal ability at recognizing faces
Despite conventional wisdom that suggests women are better than men at facial recognition, Penn State psychologists found no difference between men and women in their ability to recognize faces and categorize facial expressions.
Social Science Research Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Swayne
Penn State

Public Release: 9-May-2017
Ecology and Evolution
Noise pollution from gas compressors changes abundance of insects, spiders
The relentless roar of natural gas compressors influences the numbers of insects and spiders nearby, triggering decreases in many types of arthropods sensitive to sounds and vibrations, a collaborative Florida Museum of Natural History study shows.
Bat Conservation International, National Science Foundation

Contact: Akito Kawahara
Florida Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 9-May-2017
Frontiers in Marine Science
Study finds Amazon River carbon dioxide emissions nearly balance terrestrial uptake
New research in Brazil has found that rivers in the Amazon emit far more carbon dioxide (CO2) than previously estimated, suggesting that the Amazon Basin is closer to net carbon neutral. The results increase the most recent global estimates of CO2 emissions from rivers and lakes by almost 50 percent, with potentially huge implications for global climate policy.
FAPESP and National Science Foundation

Contact: Melissa Cochrane

Public Release: 9-May-2017
Pupils' mental health improved through school-based program, study shows
School-aged children can be taught to better their mental health through intervention programmes delivered at school, suggests a new study carried out in east London and led by an academic at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL).
Newham Council, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Taraneh Dadar
Queen Mary University of London

Public Release: 9-May-2017
Scientific Reports
Elusive atomic motion captured by electron microscopy
The movement of atoms through a material can cause problems under certain circumstances. Atomic-resolution electron microscopy has enabled researchers at Linköping University in Sweden to observe for the first time a phenomenon that has eluded materials scientists for many decades. The study is published in Scientific Reports.
Swedish Research Council, Swedish government's Strategic Research Area initiative into advanced functional materials (AFM), Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Karin Söderlund Leifler
Linköping University

Public Release: 9-May-2017
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mosquito-borne viruses like Zika may be spread at lower temperatures, potentially expanding impact
Transmission of mosquito-borne diseases, such as Zika, occur at lower temperatures than previously thought, a recently released study co-authored by two researchers at the University of South Florida (USF) in Tampa, Fla., shows. The study, led by Stanford University, used data collected by the USF researchers to create a model showing the potential effects of temperatures and temperature change on the transmission of dengue, chikungunya and Zika around the world. These three diseases are mosquito-vectored and increasing in the United States.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Adam Freeman
University of South Florida (USF Innovation)

Public Release: 8-May-2017
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
'Hot' electrons don't mind the gap
Rice University scientists discover that 'hot' electrons can create a photovoltage about a thousand times larger than ordinary temperature differences in nanoscale gaps in gold wires. This finding opens a path for plasmonic tunneling-based photodetectors for sensors, solar cells and electronics.
US Army Research Office, Robert A. Welch Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 8-May-2017
UTSA professor receives grant to support sunlight-harvesting research
Kirk Schanze, Robert A. Welch Distinguished University Chair in Chemistry at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has received a $448,211 grant from the National Science Foundation to support his research in converting sunlight to chemical energy.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Joanna Carver
University of Texas at San Antonio

Public Release: 8-May-2017
Nature Neuroscience
Researchers discover neuronal targets that restore movement in Parkinson's disease model
Carnegie Mellon University researchers have identified two groups of neurons that can be turned on and off to alleviate the movement-related symptoms of Parkinson's disease. The activation of these cells in the basal ganglia relieves symptoms for much longer than current therapies, like deep brain stimulation and pharmaceuticals. The study, completed in a mouse model of Parkinson's, used optogenetics to better understand the neural circuitry involved in Parkinson's disease, and could provide the basis for new experimental treatment protocols.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Brain & Behavior Research Foundation, Parkinson's Disease Foundation, NIH/Intramural Research Program

Contact: Jocelyn Duffy
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 8-May-2017
Frontiers in Psychology
How do toddlers learn best from touchscreens?
Research recently published in Frontiers in Psychology suggests that Educational apps for kids can be valuable learning tools, but there's still a lot left to understand about how to best design them.
National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship to Colleen Russo (DGE: 14445197) by Peabody College, Vanderbilt University

Contact: Melissa Cochrane

Public Release: 8-May-2017
New tool for analyzing mouse vocalizations may provide insights for autism modeling
Vocalization plays a significant role in social communication across species such as speech by humans and song by birds. Male mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations in the presence of females and both sexes sing during friendly social encounters. Mice have been genetically well characterized and used extensively for research on autism as well as in other areas, but until now there have been limitations to studying their ultrasonic vocalizations.
National Science Foundation, Autism Speaks, Project 2 of the Conte Center, Simms/Mann Chair in Developmental Neurogenetics

Contact: Ellin Kavanagh
Children's Hospital Los Angeles

Public Release: 5-May-2017
Nature Communications
Discovery of new transparent thin film material could improve electronics and solar cells
A team of researchers, led by the University of Minnesota, have discovered a new nano-scale thin film material with the highest-ever conductivity in its class. The new material could lead to smaller, faster, and more powerful electronics, as well as more efficient solar cells.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, US Department of Energy

Contact: Rhonda Zurn
University of Minnesota

Showing releases 626-650 out of 1050.

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