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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 626-650 out of 869.

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Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scientists trace plant hormone pathway back 450 million years
Purdue scientists got a glimpse into more than 450 million years of evolution by tracing the function of a hormone pathway that has been passed along and co-opted by new species since the first plants came onto land.
National Science Foundation, Australian Research Council, King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology of King Saud University, Deutsche Forshungsgemeinshaft

Contact: Jody Banks
Purdue University

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Nature Geoscience
What the ancient CO2 record may mean for future climate change
A team of researchers led by UC Davis reconstructed the ancient atmospheric carbon dioxide record from 330 to 260 million years ago, when ice last covered Earth's polar regions and large rainforests expanded throughout the tropics, leaving as their signature the world's coal resources. The team's deep-time reconstruction reveals previously unknown fluctuations of atmospheric carbon dioxide at levels projected for the 21st century and highlights the potential impact the loss of tropical forests can have on climate.
National Science Foundation, European Research Council

Contact: Kat Kerlin
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Nature Materials
3-D-printed organ-on-a-chip with integrated sensors
Researchers have made the first entirely 3-D-printed organ-on-a-chip with integrated sensing. Built by a fully automated, digital manufacturing process, the 3-D-printed heart-on-a-chip can be quickly fabricated and customized. This new approach to manufacturing may one day allow researchers to rapidly design organs-on-chips, also known as microphysiological systems, that match the properties of a specific disease or even an individual patient's cells.
National Science Foundation, NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, US Army Research Laboratory, Harvard University Materials Research Science and Engineering

Contact: Leah Burrows
Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Nanometer-scale image reveals new details about formation of a marine shell
An atom-by-atom picture of a marine shell's first formation shows that magnesium and sodium ions may control how shells grow under different environmental conditions.
National Science Foundation, Department of Energy

Contact: Hannah Hickey
University of Washington

Public Release: 21-Oct-2016
Unusual quantum liquid on crystal surface could inspire future electronics
Researchers at Princeton University and the University of Texas-Austin found that electrons, when kept at very low temperatures where their quantum behaviors emerge, can spontaneously begin to travel in elliptical paths on the surface of a crystal of bismuth. The strange elliptical orbits correspond to the electrons being in different "valleys" of possible states created by the crystal. The findings could inform further research on a forward-looking strategy for electronics called "valleytronics."
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation through the Princeton Center for Complex Materials, US Army Research Office, Eric and Wendy Schmidt Transformative Technology Fund

Contact: Catherine Zandonella
Princeton University

Public Release: 21-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Understanding bacteria's slimy fortresses
Engineers and biologists have for the first time revealed the mechanics of how bacteria build up slimy masses called biofilms, cell by cell. When encased in biofilms in the human body, bacteria are a thousand times less susceptible to antibiotics, making certain infections, such as pneumonia, difficult to treat and potentially lethal.
National Science Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Institutes of Health

Contact: John Sullivan
Princeton University, Engineering School

Public Release: 21-Oct-2016
Nature Communications
A new class of materials could realize quantum computers
Scientists at EPFL and PSI have discovered a new class of materials that can prove ideal for the implementation of spintronics.
Swiss National Science Foundation Project, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Austrian Science Funds, CENTEM PLUS, European Community's Seventh Framework Program

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
International team unveils first atomic-level image of the human 'marijuana receptor'
In a discovery that advances the understanding of how marijuana works in the human body, an international group of scientists, including those from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), have for the first time created a three-dimensional atomic-level image of the molecular structure activated by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active chemical in marijuana.
Ministry of Science and Technology of China, National Nature Science Foundation of China, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Shanghai Municipal Government, ShanghaiTech University, GPCR Consortium

Contact: Eric Sauter
Scripps Research Institute

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
Scientific Reports
'Mean girl' meerkats can make twice as much testosterone as males
Testosterone. It's often lauded as the hormone that makes males bigger, bolder, stronger. Now researchers have identified one group of animals, the meerkats of Africa, in which females can produce even more testosterone than males -- the only animals known to have such a pattern. Female meerkats with high levels of testosterone-related hormones are more likely to be leaders, but they also pay a price for being macho, according to two new studies.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
Duke University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
New evolutionary finding: Species take different genetic paths to reach same trait
By studying Andean bird species adapted to high altitudes, University of Nebraska-Lincoln biologist Jay Storz and colleagues found that even if natural selection produces similar beneficial traits in different species, evolutionary changes at the molecular level are idiosyncratic and less predictable.
National Science Foundation, NIH/National Health Lung and Blood Institute, Danish Council for Independent Research

Contact: Jay Storz, professor of biological sciences
University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
Designing the future internet
This century, our world will be flooded with hundreds of billions of smartphones, gadgets, sensors and other smart objects connected to the internet. At Rutgers University, Dipankar 'Ray' Raychaudhuri is at the forefront of efforts to redesign the internet to handle the enormous increase in traffic.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Todd B. Bates
Rutgers University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
Women, diversity in STEM focus of ADVANCE grant to Clemson
With $3.4 M NSF grant, Clemson will increase women and underrepresented minorities in STEM, and increase diversity and inclusion across campus.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Clinton Colmenares
Clemson University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
Turning biofuel waste into wealth in a single step
Lignin is a bulky chain of molecules found in wood and is usually discarded during biofuel production. But in a new method by EPFL chemists, the simple addition of formaldehyde could turn it into the main focus.
Swiss Competence Center for Energy Research (Biomass for a Swiss Energy Future), Swiss National Science Foundation, EPFL, US Department of Energy

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
ALS study reveals role of RNA-binding proteins
Although only 10 percent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases are hereditary, a significant number of them are caused by mutations that affect proteins that bind RNA, a type of genetic material. University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers studied several ALS cases with a mutation in a RNA-binding protein known as hnRNP A2/B1. In the study, they describe how damage to this protein contributes to ALS by scrambling crucial cellular messaging systems.
National Institutes of Health, CIRM, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowships

Contact: Heather Buschman
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
Teachers and students pair up to widen the STEM pipeline
NYU Tandon is issuing a call for NYC high schools to join a novel summer program that will bring together teams of teachers and their students who will learn robotics then take their knowledge back to their schools to establish elective courses in the STEM subjects. NSF's ITEST program recently awarded more than $1 million to the three-year project, which will combine robotics and entrepreneurial education to improve teacher practices and student outcomes.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Hamilton
NYU Tandon School of Engineering

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
DPS 48/EPSC 11
First results from long-term, hi-res tracking of eruptions on Jupiter's moon Io
UC Berkeley astronomers who have been tracking volcanic activity on Io at high frequency since 2013 using adaptive optics on the Keck and Gemini telescopes published their first 29 months of observations. The 100 separate images over that period show more than 400 hot spot events, ranging from eruptions to lava flows old and new. Some of the eruptions appeared to progress across the surface over time, as if one triggered another 500 kilometers away.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Sanders
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
New 13-year study tracks effects of changing ocean temperature on phytoplankton
A new multiyear study has shown for the first time how changes in ocean temperature affect a key species of phytoplankton. The study tracked levels of Synechococcus -- a tiny bacterium common in marine ecosystems -- near the coast of Massachusetts over a 13-year period. As ocean temperatures increased during that time, annual blooms of Synechococcus occurred up to four weeks earlier than usual because cells divide faster in warmer conditions, the study found.
National Science Foundation, NASA, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

Contact: WHOI Media Relations
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Public Release: 19-Oct-2016
UMass Amherst leads international astronomical camera project
New discoveries in star formation, galaxy cluster physics, ultra-deep galactic exploration and magnetic field surveys of the universe are coming soon, say a team of astronomers led by Grant Wilson at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, who are building the next-generation, most sensitive millimeter-wavelength polarimetric camera on Earth for studying the heavens.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Grant Wilson
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 19-Oct-2016
Stem Cells and Development
Neurodevelopmental model of Zika may provide rapid answers
A newly published study from researchers working in collaboration with the Regenerative Bioscience Center at the University of Georgia demonstrates fetal death and brain damage in early chick embryos similar to microcephaly--a rare birth defect linked to the Zika virus, now alarming health experts worldwide.
US Environmental Protection Agency, National Science Foundation, National Center for Research Resources

Contact: Charlene Betourney
University of Georgia

Public Release: 19-Oct-2016
New research could help build better hearing aids
Scientists at Binghamton University, State University of New York want to improve sensor technology critical to billions of devices made every year. With a three-year, $359,958 grant from the National Science Foundation, they will start by making a high-performance sensor and applying it to hearing aids.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sherry Towfighian
Binghamton University

Public Release: 19-Oct-2016
Applied Physics Letters
Growing gold: Researchers develop gold nanowires for biomedical procedures
A novel invention by Kansas State University researchers may benefit biomedical professionals and the patients they serve during electrode and organ transplant procedures.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Bret Flanders
Kansas State University

Public Release: 19-Oct-2016
Scientists find new genetic roots of schizophrenia
UCLA study used 3-D chromosome-mapping technology to advance understanding of the cause schizophrenia.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Glenn/AFAR Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, National Research Foundation of Korea

Contact: Shannon McCormick

Public Release: 18-Oct-2016
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance
Today's self-taught typists almost as fast as touch typists
New study finds touch typists have a definite edge in speed over nonstandard typists but self-taught typists do nearly as well as long as they can see the keyboard.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David F Salisbury
Vanderbilt University

Public Release: 18-Oct-2016
Can we find more benign nanomaterials?
University of Iowa chemist Sara Mason has won a grant to access a supercomputer network funded by the US National Science Foundation. Mason's group will use its time to better define the atom-to-atom interactions of various nanoparticles, hoping to learn more about the particles' effects on energy, the environment, and human health.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Richard Lewis
University of Iowa

Public Release: 18-Oct-2016
AIP Advances
Working under pressure: Diamond micro-anvils with huge pressures will create new materials
University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers will use pressures greater than those found at the center of the Earth to potentially create as yet unknown new materials. In the natural world, such immense forces deep underground can turn carbon into diamonds, or volcanic ash into slate. The ability to produce these pressures depends on tiny nanocrystalline-diamond anvils built in a UAB clean room manufacturing facility.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Carnagie DOE Alliance Center

Contact: Jeff Hansen
University of Alabama at Birmingham

Showing releases 626-650 out of 869.

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