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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 651-675 out of 880.

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Public Release: 9-Jun-2016
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Lung cancer breath 'signature' presents promise for earlier diagnosis
A single breath may be all it takes to identify the return of lung cancer after surgery, according to a study posted online today by The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. Key findings in this study show that breath analysis offers an option for primary screening and post-surgery monitoring of lung cancer patients. Certain carbonyl volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath indicate the presence of lung cancer. Researchers hope to get FDA approval for this new process.
Coulter Foundation, V Foundation, National Science Foundation, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Contact: Jennifer Bagley

Public Release: 9-Jun-2016
PLOS Computational Biology
Research showing why hierarchy exists will aid the development of artificial intelligence
New research explains why so many biological networks, including the human brain (a network of neurons), exhibit a hierarchical structure, and will improve attempts to create artificial intelligence. The study, published in PLOS Computational Biology, demonstrates this by showing that the evolution of hierarchy -- a simple system of ranking -- in biological networks may arise because of the costs associated with network connections.
National Science Foundation, ANR Creadapt, European Research Council

Contact: Jeff Clune

Public Release: 9-Jun-2016
NIST's super quantum simulator 'entangles' hundreds of ions
Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have 'entangled' or linked together the properties of up to 219 beryllium ions (charged atoms) to create a quantum simulator. The simulator is designed to model and mimic complex physics phenomena in a way that is impossible with conventional machines, even supercomputers. The techniques could also help improve atomic clocks.
National Science Foundation, Army Research Office, and Air Force Office of Scientific Research

Contact: Laura Ost
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
Scientific Reports
Tunable lasers to improve infrared spectroscopy
A new, broad-band tunable infrared laser has major implications for the detection of drugs and explosives.
Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, National Science Foundation, Naval Air Systems Command, DARPA, NASA

Contact: Megan Fellman
Northwestern University

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
Journal of Physical Chemistry B
New antiviral drugs could come from DNA 'scrunching'
Evidence of DNA 'scrunching' may one day lead to a new class of drugs against viruses. DNA may go through a repetitive cycle of contraction and elongation, or 'scrunching,' to generate the forces required to drive the DNA into a virus during replication. A better understanding of viral reproduction could be the basis of new ways to fight infectious pathogens.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Karen Kreeger
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
ACS Nano
Drug candidate shrinks tumor when delivered by plant virus nanoparticle
In a pair of firsts, researchers at Case Western Reserve University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have shown that the drug candidate phenanthriplatin can be more effective than an approved drug in vivo, and that a plant-virus-based carrier successfully delivers a drug in vivo.
NIH/National Cancer Institute, National Science Foundation, Mt. Sinai Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Kevin Mayhood
Case Western Reserve University

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
An eco-friendly approach to reducing toxic arsenic in rice
A team of researchers at the University of Delaware has found that incorporating rice husk to soil can decrease toxic inorganic arsenic levels in rice grain by 25 to 50 percent without negatively affecting yield. The results were recently published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, an American Chemical Society journal.
National Science Foundation, University of Delaware Research Foundation

Contact: Peter Bothum
University of Delaware

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
IEEE International Conference on Communications
Researchers find the right balance to speed wireless downloads through use of duplexing
Researchers have come up with a means of boosting wireless efficiency without increasing interference by mixing full and half duplex radios in base stations. This tunable solution could also allow wireless providers to adjust the mix of cells based on the needs of a region. The research team, led by Shivendra Panwar of NYU Tandon, conducted the first known study to investigate the impact of mixed-cell base stations on spectral efficiency and outages.
National Science Foundation, Center for Advanced Technology in Telecommunications, New York University WIRELESS research center, Higher Education Authority, Science Foundation Ireland

Contact: Kathleen Hamilton
NYU Tandon School of Engineering

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
Physics Letters B
At the LHC, charmed twins will soon be more common than singles
In the range of energies penetrated by the LHC accelerator, a new mechanism of the creation of particles is becoming more prominent, say scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Krakow. The comparison between theoretical predictions and test data leaves no doubt: the energy in collisions is now so great that some of the elementary particles, mesons containing charm quarks, are beginning to emerge in pairs as often as single ones - and even more often.
Polish National Science Centre, Transfer of Natural Sciences and Engineering Knowledge in Rzeszów, Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation

Contact: Prof. Antoni Szczurek
The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
Nature Communications
Tiny diamonds could enable huge advances in nanotechnology
University of Maryland researchers developed a new, quick and inexpensive method for constructing diamond-based hybrid nanoparticles in large quantities from the ground up, thereby circumventing many of the problems with current methods. The process begins with nanoscale diamonds containing a 'nitrogen vacancy' impurity that confers special optical and electromagnetic properties. By attaching metal particles or semiconducting'"quantum dots,' the researchers can create various hybrid nanoparticles, including nanoscale semiconductors and magnets with precisely tailored properties.
US Department of Energy, Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Matthew Wright
University of Maryland

Public Release: 8-Jun-2016
Journal of Archaeological Science
Old World metals traded on Alaska coast hundreds of years before contact with Europeans
Two leaded bronze artifacts found in northwestern Alaska are the first evidence that metal from Asia reached prehistoric North America prior to contact with Europeans, according to new Purdue University research.
National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs Arctic Social Sciences

Contact: Amy Patterson Neubert
Purdue University

Public Release: 7-Jun-2016
Nature Communications
Coral reefs fall victim to overfishing, pollution, ocean warming
Coral reefs are declining worldwide because a combination of factors -- overfishing, nutrient pollution and pathogenic disease -- ultimately become deadly in the face of higher ocean temperatures, according to a multiyear study by researchers from Rice, Oregon State and other institutions.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Public Release: 7-Jun-2016
Biology Letters
Sexual transmission of Ebola likely to impact course of outbreaks
Sexual transmission of the Ebola virus could have a major impact on the dynamics of the disease, potentially reigniting an outbreak that has been contained by public health interventions, according to research by University of Georgia ecologists just published in the Royal Society journal Biology Letters. The potential for sexual transmission is high for three to four months after the virus has been cleared from the bloodstream, and possible for an average of seven months.
NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Science Foundation

Contact: Stephanie Schupska
University of Georgia

Public Release: 7-Jun-2016
Deep learning helps to map Mars and analyze its surface chemistry
Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and Mount Holyoke College are teaming up to apply recent advances in machine learning, specifically biologically inspired deep learning methods, to analyze large amounts of scientific data from Mars. They are funded by a new four-year, $1.2 million National Science Foundation grant to computer scientist Sridhar Mahadevan, lead principal investigator at UMass Amherst's College of Information and Computer Sciences.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Janet Lathrop
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 7-Jun-2016
Applied Ecology
Hiking, hunting has minor effects on mammals in protected eastern forests
Recreation impact on wildlife distribution is minor compared with factors such as undisturbed forest habitat and local housing density.
National Science Foundation, VWR Foundation, US Forest Service, North Caroina Museum of Natural Sciences, Smithsonian Institution

Contact: Roland Kays
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 7-Jun-2016
Astrophysical Journal
Computer simulations shed light on the Milky Way's missing red giants
Simulations investigate the possibility that red giants at the center of our galaxy were dimmed after they were stripped of 10s of percent of their mass millions of years ago during repeated collisions with an accretion disk.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jason Maderer
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 7-Jun-2016
Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene
Dartmouth-led study finds removal of dams in New England can help reconnect river networks and increase watershed resilience
Dam removal in New England is important to river restoration and provides an opportunity to enhance the magnitude and rate of river re-connection, and improve watershed resilience in response to human impact on the environment, if a broader strategic removal approach is implemented throughout the region.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Amy D. Olson
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 7-Jun-2016
Nature Communications
Coral reefs fall victim to overfishing, pollution aggravated by ocean warming
Coral reefs are declining around the world because a combination of factors -- overfishing, nutrient pollution, and pathogenic disease -- ultimately become deadly in the face of higher ocean temperatures, researchers have concluded. The findings are based on one of the largest and longest studies done on this issue.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Rebecca Vega-Thurber
Oregon State University

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
WSU researcher affirms 86-year-old hypothesis
A Washington State University biologist has found what he calls 'very strong support' for an 86-year-old hypothesis about how nutrients move through plants. His two-decade analysis of the phenomenon has resulted in a suite of techniques that can ultimately be used to fight plant diseases and make crops more efficient.
National Science Foundation, Harvard Bullard Fellowship, Carlsberg Foundation, USDA/National Institute of Food and Agriculture, US Department of Energy

Contact: Michael Knoblauch, WSU professor of biological sciences
Washington State University

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Journal of the American Chemical Society
A new approach to chemical synthesis
MIT chemists have devised a new way to synthesize communesins -- fungal compounds with anti-cancer potential.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
New photonic sensor opens the door to high-speed biodetection
Researchers from the University of Illinois have developed a new technique for extremely high speed photonic sensing of the mechanical properties of freely flowing particles using an opto-mechano-fluidic resonator. This work presents a new approach to perform resonantly enhanced optical sensing of freely flowing particles through the action of long-range phonons that extend between solid and fluid phases of the sensor and sample.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Gaurav Bahl
University of Illinois College of Engineering

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Applied Energy
Microgrids, not always economically efficient in regulated electricity markets
Installing a microgrid within a regulated electricity market will sometimes, but not always, provide an economic benefit to customers, investors and utilities involved, according to new research led by Chiara Lo Prete, assistant professor of energy economics, Penn State.
National Science Foundation, Harvard University Center for the Environment

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Journal of Experimental Biology
Marine invertebrate larvae actively respond to their surroundings
Using larvae of sea urchins as test examples, scientists from HKUST and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution found that these little creatures actively modify their swimming speeds in response to ambient flow conditions. They actively increase their swimming speed in increased turbulence and are passively reoriented through morphology-flow interactions, which compromise their ability to maintain directed swimming.
National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Contact: Sherry No
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Inbred Neanderthals left humans a genetic burden
The Neanderthal genome included harmful mutations that made the hominids around 40 percent less reproductively fit than modern humans, according to estimates published in the latest issue of the journal GENETICS. Non-African humans inherited some of this genetic burden when they interbred with Neanderthals, though much of it has been lost over time. The results suggest that these harmful gene variants continue to reduce the fitness of some populations today. The study also has implications for management of endangered species.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Cristy Gelling
Genetics Society of America

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
'Wasteful' galaxies launch heavy elements into surrounding halos and deep space
Galaxies 'waste' large amounts of heavy elements generated by star formation by ejecting them up to a million light years away into their surrounding halos and deep space, according to a new study led by the University of Colorado Boulder.
NASA, PRACE, National Science Foundation, Institute for Computational Cosmology, European Research Council, Belgian Science Policy Office

Contact: Benjamin Oppenheimer
University of Colorado at Boulder

Showing releases 651-675 out of 880.

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