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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 701-725 out of 893.

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Public Release: 7-Jun-2016
Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene
Dartmouth-led study finds removal of dams in New England can help reconnect river networks and increase watershed resilience
Dam removal in New England is important to river restoration and provides an opportunity to enhance the magnitude and rate of river re-connection, and improve watershed resilience in response to human impact on the environment, if a broader strategic removal approach is implemented throughout the region.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Amy D. Olson
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 7-Jun-2016
Nature Communications
Coral reefs fall victim to overfishing, pollution aggravated by ocean warming
Coral reefs are declining around the world because a combination of factors -- overfishing, nutrient pollution, and pathogenic disease -- ultimately become deadly in the face of higher ocean temperatures, researchers have concluded. The findings are based on one of the largest and longest studies done on this issue.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Rebecca Vega-Thurber
Oregon State University

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
WSU researcher affirms 86-year-old hypothesis
A Washington State University biologist has found what he calls 'very strong support' for an 86-year-old hypothesis about how nutrients move through plants. His two-decade analysis of the phenomenon has resulted in a suite of techniques that can ultimately be used to fight plant diseases and make crops more efficient.
National Science Foundation, Harvard Bullard Fellowship, Carlsberg Foundation, USDA/National Institute of Food and Agriculture, US Department of Energy

Contact: Michael Knoblauch, WSU professor of biological sciences
Washington State University

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Journal of the American Chemical Society
A new approach to chemical synthesis
MIT chemists have devised a new way to synthesize communesins -- fungal compounds with anti-cancer potential.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
New photonic sensor opens the door to high-speed biodetection
Researchers from the University of Illinois have developed a new technique for extremely high speed photonic sensing of the mechanical properties of freely flowing particles using an opto-mechano-fluidic resonator. This work presents a new approach to perform resonantly enhanced optical sensing of freely flowing particles through the action of long-range phonons that extend between solid and fluid phases of the sensor and sample.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Gaurav Bahl
University of Illinois College of Engineering

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Applied Energy
Microgrids, not always economically efficient in regulated electricity markets
Installing a microgrid within a regulated electricity market will sometimes, but not always, provide an economic benefit to customers, investors and utilities involved, according to new research led by Chiara Lo Prete, assistant professor of energy economics, Penn State.
National Science Foundation, Harvard University Center for the Environment

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Journal of Experimental Biology
Marine invertebrate larvae actively respond to their surroundings
Using larvae of sea urchins as test examples, scientists from HKUST and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution found that these little creatures actively modify their swimming speeds in response to ambient flow conditions. They actively increase their swimming speed in increased turbulence and are passively reoriented through morphology-flow interactions, which compromise their ability to maintain directed swimming.
National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Contact: Sherry No
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Inbred Neanderthals left humans a genetic burden
The Neanderthal genome included harmful mutations that made the hominids around 40 percent less reproductively fit than modern humans, according to estimates published in the latest issue of the journal GENETICS. Non-African humans inherited some of this genetic burden when they interbred with Neanderthals, though much of it has been lost over time. The results suggest that these harmful gene variants continue to reduce the fitness of some populations today. The study also has implications for management of endangered species.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Cristy Gelling
Genetics Society of America

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
'Wasteful' galaxies launch heavy elements into surrounding halos and deep space
Galaxies 'waste' large amounts of heavy elements generated by star formation by ejecting them up to a million light years away into their surrounding halos and deep space, according to a new study led by the University of Colorado Boulder.
NASA, PRACE, National Science Foundation, Institute for Computational Cosmology, European Research Council, Belgian Science Policy Office

Contact: Benjamin Oppenheimer
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Health Affairs
Study of 81,000 adults examines mental illness, gun violence and suicide
People with serious mental illnesses who use guns to commit suicide are often legally eligible to purchase guns, despite having a past record of an involuntary mental health examination and brief hospitalization, according to a new Duke Health analysis.
National Science Foundation, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation program in Public Health Law Research, Brain and Behavior Research Foundation, Elizabeth K. Dollard Charitable Trust

Contact: Samiha Khanna
Duke University Medical Center

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Study finds wide geographic differences in treatment of diabetes, hypertension, depression
An international study led by Columbia University researchers has found widespread differences in the treatment of patients with common chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and depression.
National Library of Medicine, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Science Foundation, Smart Family Foundation

Contact: Karin Eskenazi
Columbia University Medical Center

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Electric eels make leaping attacks
Vanderbilt biologist Kenneth Catania has accidentally discovered that can electric eels make leaping attacks that dramatically increase the strength of the electric shocks they deliver and, in so doing, has confirmed a 200-year-old observation by famous 19th century explorer and naturalist Alexander von Humboldt.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David F Salisbury
Vanderbilt University

Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Ice age bison fossils shed light on early human migrations in North America
Scientists using evidence from bison fossils have determined when an ice-free corridor opened up along the Rocky Mountains during the late Pleistocene. The corridor has been considered a potential route for human and animal migrations between the far north (Alaska and Yukon) and the rest of North America, but when and how it was used has long been uncertain.
US National Science Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Canada Research Chairs program, Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada

Contact: Tim Stephens
University of California - Santa Cruz

Public Release: 3-Jun-2016
Physical Review Letters
Technique could help climate models sweat the small stuff
Research led by a Brown University physicist reveals a way to include small-scale dynamics into computer simulations of large-scale phenomena, which could make for better climate models and astrophysical simulations.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Stacey
Brown University

Public Release: 3-Jun-2016
Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Kent State & Cleveland Metroparks launch learning app
Educators, scientists, and technologists from the Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Kent State University and Cleveland Metroparks have partnered to develop a new learning app that is now live and freely available on iTunes. The app, called ParkApps, features a number of different resources aimed at educating park visitors as they run, hike and bike through the parks. The project was funded by the National Science Foundation's Advancing Informal STEM Learning initiative.
National Science Foundation's Advancing Informal STEM Learning initiative

Contact: Rick Ferdig
Kent State University

Public Release: 3-Jun-2016
Animal Behaviour
Personality changes can affect fish body shape, locomotion
Fish that are bred to be bolder or more shy show corresponding changes to their body shape and locomotion, suggesting that personality changes affect other seemingly unrelated traits. The findings could be useful in animal breeding, pest management and studies of complex human behaviors.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Brian Langerhans
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 3-Jun-2016
Study shows how judgment of sensory simultaneity may develop in the brain
In a study using tadpoles, neuroscientists tracked how the brain develops its sense of whether two sensory inputs -- for example, vision and touch -- happened at the same time.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University

Public Release: 3-Jun-2016
Nature Communications
Promising treatment prospects for invasive breast cancer
Scientists from the University of Zurich have been able to understand for the first time why many cancer cells adapt relatively quickly to the treatment with therapeutic antibodies in invasive forms of breast cancer. Instead of dying off, they are merely rendered inactive. The researchers have now developed an active substance that kills the cancer cells very effectively without harming healthy cells.
Swiss Cancer League, Swiss Cancer Research foundation, Swiss National Science Foundation, EU FP7 program AFFINOMICS, University of Zurich

Contact: Andreas Plueckthun
University of Zurich

Public Release: 2-Jun-2016
Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging
FTIR and microarrays: Enabling more information from less sample
By using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), researchers at the Center for Structural Biology and Bioinformatics, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium can greatly increase the amount of information that can be extracted from a protein microarray. In a new report in the current issue of Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging, they show how high-quality spectra can be obtained from spots of protein no larger than the diameter of a human hair.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Esther Mateike
IOS Press

Public Release: 2-Jun-2016
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Highly tuned catalytic controls
You could think of bioorthogonal chemistry as a discreet valet or concierge that steers two world leaders to a private meeting without making noise or trouble along the way. The valet is a catalyst of sorts, arranging the meeting to expedite a result that would not otherwise happen. Now, the collaborative work of four University of Delaware professors has given the valet an upgraded GPS and a turbo-charged engine, allowing for faster, more precise reactions that can be triggered by light or an enzyme.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Osteo Science Foundation

Contact: Peter Bothum
University of Delaware

Public Release: 2-Jun-2016
Stampede 2 drives the frontiers of science and engineering forward
The National Science Foundation announced a $30 million award to the Texas Advanced Computing Center at The University of Texas at Austin to acquire and deploy a new large scale supercomputing system, Stampede 2, as a strategic national resource to provide high-performance computing capabilities for thousands of researchers across the US.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Faith Singer-Villalobos
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 2-Jun-2016
American Mineralogist
Scientists gain supervolcano insights from Wyoming granite
A new National Science Foundation-funded study by University of Wyoming researchers suggests that scientists can go back into the past to study the solidified magma chambers where erosion has removed the overlying rock, exposing granite underpinnings.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Carol Frost
University of Wyoming

Public Release: 2-Jun-2016
Scientists find surprising magnetic excitations in a metallic compound
Scientists have found magnetic excitations in a metallic compound whose main source of magnetism is the orbital movement of its electrons. Their discovery challenges conventional wisdom that these excitations are only found in materials whose magnetism is dominated by the spin of its electrons.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, Netherlands Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter

Contact: Ariana Tantillo
DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory

Public Release: 2-Jun-2016
JCI Insight
Pulmonary artery stiffening is an early driver of pulmonary hypertension
In this issue of JCI Insight, a team led by Laura Fredenburgh of Brigham and Women's Hospital shows that alterations in pulmonary arterial stiffness occur early during disease and promote vascular remodeling by altering signaling mediated by prostaglandins, a class of hormones that regulate inflammation, smooth muscle contraction, and vasoconstrictoin.
American Thoracic Society/Pulmonary Hypertension Association/Pfizer Research Fellowship in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, National Institutes of Health, Cardiovascular Medical Research and Education Fund, National Science Foundation

Contact: Corinne Williams
JCI Journals

Public Release: 2-Jun-2016
New radio map of Jupiter reveals what's beneath colorful clouds
Using the upgraded Very Large Array, UC Berkeley astronomers have produced a detailed radio map of the upper 100 kilometers of Jupiter's atmosphere, revealing the complex movement of ammonia gas that shapes the colorful clouds observed in the optical. The map will help understand how global circulation and cloud formation are driven by Jupiter's powerful internal heat source, and shed light on similar processes on giant planets in our solar system and around distant stars.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Sanders
University of California - Berkeley

Showing releases 701-725 out of 893.

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