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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 726-750 out of 862.

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Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
Cell Host & Microbe
Plant signals travel different routes to turn on defense
Faced with a pathogen, important signaling chemicals within plant cells travel different routes to inform the plant to turn on its defense mechanisms, according to a recent University of Kentucky study.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Katie Pratt
University of Kentucky

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
JCI Insight
Critical immunotherapy target marks dysfunctional regulatory T cells in brain cancer
In this issue of JCI Insight, David Hafler and colleagues at Yale University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology report that PD-1 expression on regulatory T cells from the tumors of glioblastoma multiforme patients correlates with regulatory T cell dysfunction.
National Institutes of Health, Koch Institute, NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Nancy Taylor Foundation for Chronic Diseases Inc., National Science Foundation

Contact: Corinne Williams
JCI Journals

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
Leg-wing cooperation in baby birds, dinosaurs is key transition in origin of flight
New research based on high-resolution x-ray movies reveals that despite having extremely underdeveloped muscles and wings, young birds acquire a mature flight stroke early in their development, initially relying heavily on their legs and wings to work in tandem to power the strenuous movement. The new study, published today in the journal PLOS ONE, is important for understanding the development of flight in modern birds and reconstructing its origins in extinct dinosaurs.
National Science Foundation, W.M. Keck Foundation

Contact: Kendra Snyder
American Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
The gates of serotonin: Cracking the workings of a notorious receptor
EPFL scientists have elucidated for the first time how a notoriously elusive serotonin receptor functions with atom-level detail. The receptor transmits electrical signals in neurons and is involved in various disorders, meaning that the discovery opens the way for new treatments.
National Center of Science (Poland), Swiss National Science Foundation, European Community, École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
Temporal cues help keep human looking human
Researchers used genetically modified bacteria as a model to help explain how a developing animal keeps all of its parts and organs in the same general proportions as every other member of its species. By combining two chemical signals with a few variables, timing cues emerge that can not only create patterns, they can also make sure these patterns have roughly the same proportions from one bacterial colony to the next.
Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, Army Research Office, National Institutes of Health, Swiss National Science Foundation, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, US Department of Homeland Security

Contact: Ken Kingery
Duke University

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
Mechanics of a heartbeat are controlled by molecular strut in heart muscle cells
Using high-resolution microscopy, researchers found that molecular struts called microtubules interact with the heart's contractile machinery to provide mechanical resistance for the beating of the heart, which could provide a better understanding of how microtubules affect the mechanics of the beating heart, and what happens when this goes awry.
National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, NIH/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Science Foundation, NIH/National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering

Contact: Karen Kreeger
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Public Release: 21-Apr-2016
Current Biology
Asleep somewhere new, one brain hemisphere keeps watch
Have trouble sleeping on your first night in a new place? A new study explains what's going on in the brain during that 'first-night effect.'
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University

Public Release: 20-Apr-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Farming amoebae carry around detoxifying food
The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum can farm symbiotic bacteria for food by carrying them from generation to generation. New research shows that these bacteria can also protect the amoeba from environmental toxins.
National Science Foundation, The John Templeton Foundation

Contact: Diana Lutz
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 20-Apr-2016
Scientists sharpen view of gene transfer between pathogenic bacteria
Bacteria possess the ability to take up DNA from their environment, a skill that enables them to acquire new genes for antibiotic resistance or to escape the immune response. Scientists have now mapped the core set of genes that are consistently controlled during DNA uptake in strep bacteria, and they hope the finding will allow them to cut off the microbes' ability to survive what doctors and nature can throw at them.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Bill Burton
University of Illinois at Chicago

Public Release: 20-Apr-2016
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Model makes designing new antennas orders of magnitude faster
Researchers have developed a model that allows antenna designers to identify efficient configurations for antenna designs in minutes, rather than days. The model is designed to expedite development of next generation 'multi-input, multi-ouput' (MIMO) antennas, which allow devices to get more use out of the available bandwidth.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 20-Apr-2016
First North American monkey fossils are found in Panama Canal excavation
Seven fossil teeth exposed by the Panama Canal expansion project are first evidence of a monkey on the North American continent before the Isthmus of Panama connected it to South America 3.5 million years ago. A team including Carlos Jaramillo, staff scientist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, published this discovery online in the journal, Nature today.
US National Science Foundation

Contact: Beth King
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Public Release: 20-Apr-2016
ACM Computer-Human Interaction conference
In gaming, player behavior reflects roles -- even when no roles are given
New research finds that player behavior in narrative role-playing games (RPGs) reflects specific character roles -- even if the game tells players nothing about the character's role. The finding is relevant to both game designers and gaming researchers who study player behavior in RPGs.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 19-Apr-2016
American Journal of Pathology
Inflammatory protein involved in autoimmune diseases has healing potential
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside have found that TNF-alpha, a proinflammatory molecule and protein produced by the body's cells during infection, also promotes the immune system regulatory responses by first inducing immune surveillance cells--a finding that could lead to more targeted drug therapies for treating several autoimmune diseases.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 19-Apr-2016
IUPUI ecohydrologist studies fog, dew and other novel water sources for dryland vegetation
Ecohydrologist Lixin Wang of the School of Science at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis is investigating how non-rainfall water sources -- especially fog and dew -- impact drylands with important implications for their agriculture.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Cindy Fox Aisen
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis School of Science

Public Release: 19-Apr-2016
Designing attack-resilient micro aerial vehicles
University of Delaware researcher Guoquan Huang has been awarded a two-year grant from the National Science Foundation to design attack-resilient micro aerial vehicles.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Peter Bothum
University of Delaware

Public Release: 19-Apr-2016
Royal Society Open Science
Lemurs mix smelly secretions to make richer, longer-lasting scents
Humans aren't alone in their ability to mix perfumes and colognes. Lemurs, too, get more out of their smelly secretions by combining fragrances from different scent glands to create richer, longer-lasting scents, finds a study led by Duke University.
Duke University, National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
Duke University

Public Release: 19-Apr-2016
Nature Communications
Rough childhoods have ripple effects for wild baboons
Numerous studies show that childhood trauma can have far-reaching effects on adult health; new research finds the same is true for wild baboons. Baboons that experience multiple misfortunes in early life grow up to live shorter adult lives, researchers report. The results show that early adversity can have long-term negative effects even in the absence of factors commonly evoked to explain similar patterns in humans, such as smoking, drinking or medical care.
National Science Foundation, NIH/National Institute on Aging, Duke University, Princeton University, Chicago Zoological Society, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, L.S.B. Leakey Foundation, National Geographic Society

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
Duke University

Public Release: 18-Apr-2016
Nature Genetics
Scientists ID genes connected to wellbeing, depression and neuroticism
In one of the largest genomic studies to date, a group of more than 190 scientists have identified genes that are tied to depression, neuroticism and subjective wellbeing. Some of these genes also have links to issues such as schizophrenia and anxiety disorder.
National Science Foundation, National Institute of Health, NIH/Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research, Ragnar Soderberg Foundation, Swedish Research Council, Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation, European Research Council, others

Contact: Emily Gersema
University of Southern California

Public Release: 18-Apr-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Exfoliating thinner flakes of phosphorene at higher yield
By deoxygenating water, Northwestern University professor Mark Hersam discovered a new way to exfoliate phosphorene into atomically thin flakes.
National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research

Contact: Megan Fellman
Northwestern University

Public Release: 18-Apr-2016
Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface
Post-wildfire erosion can be major sculptor of forested western mountains
New Mexico's Las Conchas fire provided researchers with an unexpected chance to conduct before-and-after studies of how wildfire affected short and long-term erosion rates. More than 90 percent of long-term erosion happened in the geologically brief time intervals right after forest fires. The study is the first to assess the impact of wildfires on forested mountainous landscapes of the US Intermountain West by combining several different ways to measure short-term and long-term erosion rates.
National Science Foundation, Geological Society of America

Contact: Mari N. Jensen
University of Arizona

Public Release: 18-Apr-2016
Nature Cell Biology
Newly discovered vulnerability in breast tumor cells points to new cancer treatment path
Cancer cells often devise ways to survive even in the presence of toxic chemotherapy. Now, a research team led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center has found a way to attack a process that tumor cells use to escape the effects of standard cancer drugs. The discovery is published online today in the journal Nature Cell Biology.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jennifer Kritz
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Public Release: 18-Apr-2016
American Physical Society Meeting
HAWC Gamma-ray Observatory reveals new look at the very-high-energy sky
Today, scientists operating the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-ray Observatory released a new survey of the sky made from the highest energy gamma rays ever observed. The new sky map, which uses data collected since the observatory began running at full capacity last March, offers a deeper understanding of high-energy processes taking place in our galaxy and beyond.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología

Contact: Abby Robinson
University of Maryland

Public Release: 18-Apr-2016
Current Anthropology
Bigger brains led to bigger bodies in our ancestors
New research suggests that humans became the large-brained, large-bodied animals we are today because of natural selection to increase brain size. The work contradicts previous models that treat brain size and body size as independent traits. Instead, the study shows that brain size and body size are genetically linked and that selection to increase brain size will 'pull along' body size.
George Washington University/Selective Excellence Program, Fulbright Foundation, National Science Foundation, and National Institutes of Health

Contact: Kendra Snyder
American Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 18-Apr-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Thanks, actin, for the memories
Rice University research suggests a complex dance between actin filaments and aggregating proteins is key to the molecular machinery that forms and stores long-term memories.
NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 18-Apr-2016
Nature Plants
The P tax cometh
A new analysis shows that if tropical farming intensifies, there could be a staggering cost: millions of tons of phosphorus 'tax' that must be paid to the soil.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Joshua Brown
University of Vermont

Showing releases 726-750 out of 862.

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