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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 726-750 out of 1151.

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Public Release: 17-Sep-2020
Science
Ecologists sound alarm on plastic pollution
Research led by ecologists at the University of Toronto examining plastic pollution entering oceans, rivers and lakes around the world annually, outlines potential impacts of various mitigation strategies over the coming decade. The researchers estimate the scale of human response needed to reduce future emissions and manage what's already floating around out there and recommend a fundamental shift to a framework based on recycling where end-of-life plastic products are valued rather than becoming waste.
National Science Foundation, National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center

Contact: Sean Bettam
s.bettam@utoronto.ca
416-946-7950
University of Toronto

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
Nature Catalysis
Researchers discover effective pathway to convert CO2 into ethylene
The scientists developed nanoscale copper wires with specially shaped surfaces to catalyze a chemical reaction that reduces greenhouse gas emissions while generating ethylene -- a valuable chemical simultaneously.
Office of Naval Research, US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, with additional support from the National Research Foundation of Korea, Irvine Materials Research Institute and ExxonMobil

Contact: Christine Wei-li Lee
clee@seas.ucla.edu
310-206-0540
University of California - Los Angeles

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
eLife
Princeton scientists explain how diverse species coexist in microbial communities
In their paper appearing September 11, 2020 in the journal eLife, Princeton researchers Amir Erez, Jaime Lopez, Ned Wingreen and colleagues use mathematical modeling to explore how species diversity in a bacterial community is affected when the nutrients the microbes depend upon are only seasonally available.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

Contact: Caitlin Sedwick
lizfw@princeton.edu
202-361-0094
Princeton University

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
UMass Amherst researchers receive $6.3 million to ensure sustainable energy transition
A new program at UMass Amherst has been awarded two grants totaling $6.3 million from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to ensure that the transformation of the electric grid is both sustainable and benefits all members of society equitably, an aspect of energy transition not often considered in policymaking or public discourse.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Patty Shillington
pshillington@umass.edu
305-606-9909
University of Massachusetts Amherst

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Turbulence affects aerosols and cloud formation
Turbulent air in the atmosphere affects how cloud droplets form. New research from Michigan Technological University's cloud chamber changes the way clouds, and therefore climate, are modeled.
National Science Foundation, Department of Energy

Contact: Kelley Christensen
kelleyc@mtu.edu
906-487-3510
Michigan Technological University

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
European Conference on Computer Vision
New data processing module makes deep neural networks smarter
Artificial intelligence researchers have improved the performance of deep neural networks by combining feature normalization and feature attention modules into a single module that they call attentive normalization. The hybrid module improves the accuracy of the system significantly, while using negligible extra computational power.
National Science Foundation, Army Research Office

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
Nature
Scientists identify gene family key to unlocking vertebrate evolution
New University of Colorado Boulder-led research finds that the traits that make vertebrates distinct from invertebrates were made possible by the emergence of a new set of genes 500 million years ago, documenting an important episode in evolution where new genes played a significant role in the evolution of novel traits in vertebrates.
National Science Foundation, H2020 Marie Sk?odowska-Curie Actions, Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education Science Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic, VEGA

Contact: Kelsey Simpkins
kelsey.simpkins@colorado.edu
720-204-2920
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
Legacy high performance computing system seeds supercomputing excellence at UT Dallas
TACC's Stampede1 was one of the most powerful supercomputers in the U.S. for open science research from 2013 to 2017. In 2018, 20 racks were donated to UT Dallas through the UT Research Cyberinfrastructure initiative and became Ganymede, a resource for campus researchers. Through efforts by campus facilitators, the number of HPC users at UT Dallas grew from a few dozen to several hundred.
National Science Foundation

Contact: AARON DUBROW
aarondubrow@tacc.utexas.edu
512-820-5785
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
Major NSF grant accelerates development of the Giant Magellan Telescope
The GMTO Corporation has received a $17.5 million grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to accelerate the prototyping and testing of some of the most powerful optical and infrared technologies ever engineered. These crucial advancements for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile will allow astronomers to see farther into space with more detail than any other optical telescope before.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ryan Kallabis
rkallabis@gmto.org
626-204-0554
GMTO Corporation

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
Optica
MTU and Argonne engineers improve signal processing for small fiber optic cables
Tiny circuits can go the distance. Researchers at Michigan Tech have mapped a noise-reducing magneto-optical response that occurs in fiber-optic communications, opening the door for new materials technologies.
Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Air Force Research Laboratory, SRICO, Inc.

Contact: Allison Mills
awmills@mtu.edu
906-231-4271
Michigan Technological University

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
Researchers to study effects of landlord decisions during pandemic
A rapid response grant from the National Science Foundation will allow an Iowa State University research team to study how landlord decision-making has contributed to rental housing instability during the COVID-19 pandemic.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Chelsea Davis
chelsead@iastate.edu
515-294-4778
Iowa State University

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
Journal of American Chemical Society
Reaching 90% PL quantum yield in 1D metal halide by pressure-suppressed nonradiative loss
Here, we report a significant pressure-induced photoluminescence (PL) enhancement in a one-dimensional hybrid metal halide C4N2H14PbBr4, and the underlying mechanisms are investigated using in situ experimental characterization and first-principles calculations. Under a gigapascal pressure scale, the PL quantum yields (PLQYs) were quantitatively determined to show a dramatic increase from the initial value of 20% at ambient conditions to over 90% at 2.8 GPa.
National Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC)

Contact: Haini Dong
donghn@hpstar.ac.cn
086-021-801-77125
Center for High Pressure Science & Technology Advanced Research

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
Nature
A white dwarf's surprise planetary companion
For the first time, an intact, giant exoplanet has been discovered orbiting close to a white dwarf star. This discovery shows that it is possible for Jupiter-sized planets to survive their star's demise and settle into close orbits around the remaining stellar ember, near the habitable zone. This foretells one possible future for our own Solar System when the Sun ages into a white dwarf.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Amanda Kocz
akocz@aura-astronomy.org
Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA)

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
Science Advances
Most landslides in western Oregon triggered by heavy rainfall, not big earthquakes
Deep-seated landslides in the central Oregon Coast Range are triggered mostly by rainfall, not by large offshore earthquakes.
National Science Foundation, Geological Society of America

Contact: Hannah Hickey
hickeyh@uw.edu
206-543-2580
University of Washington

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
Nature
Next-gen organoids grow and function like real tissues
Bioengineers at EPFL have created miniature intestines in a dish that match up anatomically and functionally to the real thing better than any other lab-grown tissue models. The biological complexity and longevity of the new organoid technology is an important step towards enabling drug testing, personalized medicine, and perhaps, one day, transplantations.
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), NCCR Bio-Inspired Materials, EU Horizon 2020 INTENS, Personalized Health and Related Technologies (PHRT) Initiative Novartis Foundation for Medical-Biological ResearchEMBO

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
n.papageorgiou@epfl.ch
41-216-932-105
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
Science Advances
Mapping cavefish brains leads to neural origin of behavioral evolution
While studied for nearly a century, little is known about how cavefish brains differ. A study is the first to look inside their brains with millimeter resolution to start to understand how the individual neurons and brain regions that drive complex behaviors, including sleep and feeding have evolved. This work has broad implications for the understanding of how brains evolve in many different animal models and is hoped to be widely used by the scientific community.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, US-Israel Binational Science Foundation

Contact: Gisele Galoustian
ggaloust@fau.edu
561-985-4615
Florida Atlantic University

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
Nature
Marine animals live where ocean is most breathable, ranges may shrink with climate change
New research from the University of Washington shows that a wide variety of marine animals -- from vertebrates to crustaceans to mollusks -- already inhabit the maximum range of breathable ocean that their physiology will allow. The findings provide a warning about climate change: Since warmer waters will harbor less oxygen, some stretches of ocean that are breathable today for a given species may not be in the future.
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Science Foundation

Contact: James Urton
jurton@uw.edu
206-543-2580
University of Washington

Public Release: 16-Sep-2020
Nature
Research reveals an enormous planet quickly orbiting a tiny, dying star
Thanks to a bevy of telescopes in space and on Earth -- and even a pair of amateur astronomers in Arizona -- a University of Wisconsin-Madison astronomer and his colleagues have discovered a Jupiter-sized planet orbiting at breakneck speed around a distant white dwarf star.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: Andrew Vanderburg
avanderburg@wisc.edu
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 15-Sep-2020
Applied Physics Letters
Theoretically, two layers are better than one for solar-cell efficiency
Solar cells have come a long way, but inexpensive, thin film solar cells are still far behind more expensive, crystalline solar cells in efficiency. Now, a team of researchers suggests that using two thin films of different materials may be the way to go to create affordable, thin film cells with about 34% efficiency.
National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-5689
Penn State

Public Release: 15-Sep-2020
Cell
COVID-19 virus uses heparan sulfate to get inside cells
UC San Diego researchers discovered that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can't grab hold of cell receptor ACE2 without a carbohydrate called heparan sulfate, which is also found on lung cell surfaces -- disrupting that interaction with a repurposed drug may help treat COVID-19.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Department of Defense, Alfred Benzon Foundation, Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogenesis Readiness MassCPR, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Huck Institutes

Contact: Heather Buschman, PhD
hbuschman@ucsd.edu
858-249-0456
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 15-Sep-2020
Storing information and designing uncrackable codes with DNA
Researchers at ASU's Biodesign Institute are exploring the unique information-carrying capacities of DNA, hoping to produce microscopic forms whose ability to encrypt, store and retrieve information rival those of the silicon-based semiconductor memories found in most computers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: richard harth
richard.harth@asu.edu
Arizona State University

Public Release: 15-Sep-2020
Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans
New research provides global analysis of storm surge footprints
New research provides a global analysis of the footprint of storm surges, providing a first step toward helping decision-makers coordinate flood management and emergency response plans across borders.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Nanci Bompey
nbompey@agu.org
American Geophysical Union

Public Release: 15-Sep-2020
eLife
Rising temperatures could shift US West Nile virus transmission
West Nile virus spreads most efficiently in the US at temperatures between 24-25 degrees Celsius (75.2-77 degrees Fahrenheit), a new study published today in eLife shows.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Emily Packer
e.packer@elifesciences.org
eLife

Public Release: 15-Sep-2020
Robots to help children touch the outside world
A team of University of California researchers is working to improve telepresence robots and the algorithms that drive them to help children with disabilities stay connected to their classmates, teachers and communities. The effort is funded by a $1 million grant from the National Robotics Initiative at the National Science Foundation.
National Robotics Initiative (NSF)

Contact: Ioana Patringenaru
ipatrin@eng.ucsd.edu
858-822-0899
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 15-Sep-2020
Nature Communications
Ocean algae get 'coup de grace' from viruses
Scientists have long believed that ocean viruses always quickly kill algae, but Rutgers-led research shows they live in harmony with algae and viruses provide a 'coup de grace' only when blooms of algae are already stressed and dying. The study will likely change how scientists view viral infections of algae, also known as phytoplankton - especially the impact of viruses on ecosystem processes like algal bloom formation (and decline) and the cycling of carbon and other chemicals on Earth.
National Science Foundation, NASA, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Rutgers Institute of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences.

Contact: Todd Bates
todd.bates@rutgers.edu
848-932-0550
Rutgers University

Showing releases 726-750 out of 1151.

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