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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 726-750 out of 943.

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Public Release: 11-Jan-2017
Ecology Letters
Pressures from grazers hastens ecosystem collapse from drought
Ecosystem collapse from extreme drought can be significantly hastened by pressures placed on drought-weakened vegetation by grazers and fungal pathogens, a new Duke-led study finds. The study's experimental evidence shows that the natural enemies of plants play a major role in lowering resilience to drought and preventing recovery afterward. The finding may be applicable to a wide range of ecosystems now threatened by climate-intensified drought, including marshes, mangroves, forests and grasslands.
National Key Basic Research Program of China, National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Lucas
tdlucas@duke.edu
919-613-8084
Duke University

Public Release: 11-Jan-2017
Nature Biomedical Engineering
Researchers use stem cells to regenerate the external layer of a human heart
A process using human stem cells can generate the cells that cover the external surface of a human heart -- epicardium cells -- according to a multidisciplinary team of researchers.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Penn State's College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Center

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State

Public Release: 11-Jan-2017
Royal Society Open Science
Genetic opposites attract when chimpanzees choose a mate
Duke University researchers find that chimpanzees are more likely to reproduce with mates whose genetic makeup most differs from their own. Many animals avoid breeding with parents, siblings and other close relatives, researchers say. But chimps are unusual in that even among virtual strangers they can tell genetically similar mates from more distant ones. Chimps are able to distinguish degrees of genetic similarity among unfamiliar mates many steps removed from them in their family tree.
Jane Goodall Institute, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
ras10@duke.edu
919-681-8057
Duke University

Public Release: 11-Jan-2017
Nano Letters
CWRU directly measures how perovskite solar films efficiently convert light to power
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University have directly shown that electrons generated when light strikes a well-oriented perovskite film are unrestricted by grain boundaries and travel long distances without deteriorating. Identification of this property, which is key to efficiently convert sunlight into electricity, could lead to more efficient solar panels.
National Science Foundation, National Natural Science Foundation of China

Contact: Kevin Mayhood
kevin.mayhood@case.edu
216-534-7183
Case Western Reserve University

Public Release: 11-Jan-2017
WPI researcher wins NSF CAREER Award to study how bacteria survive in stressful conditions
With a five-year, $1.1 million CAREER Award from the National Science Foundation (NSF), Scarlett Shell at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) will study the molecular mechanisms that enable bacteria to endure starvation, lack of oxygen, and other hostile conditions, work that could have a broad impact in a number of fields and provide clues for treatments for infectious diseases, including multi-drug resistant strains of tuberculosis, a major global health threat
National Science Foundation

Contact: Michael Cohen
mcohen@wpi.edu
508-868-4778
Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Public Release: 11-Jan-2017
PLOS ONE
Why Lyme disease is common in the north, rare in the south
When it's hot and not too muggy, Lyme disease-bearing black-legged ticks avoid desiccation by hiding out where people don't tread. Scientists say that's why the illness is rare in the South, and may eventually fade out along the Mason-Dixon line.
National Science Foundation, University of Rhode Island

Contact: Heather Dewar
hdewar@usgs.gov
352-264-3542
US Geological Survey

Public Release: 11-Jan-2017
Nature
New laser based on unusual physics phenomenon could improve telecommunications, computing
Researchers at the University of California San Diego have demonstrated the world's first laser based on an unconventional wave physics phenomenon called bound states in the continuum. The technology could revolutionize the development of surface lasers, making them more compact and energy-efficient for communications and computing applications. The new BIC lasers could also be developed as high-power lasers for industrial and defense applications.
National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research Multi-University Research Initiative, University of California San Diego

Contact: Liezel Labios
llabios@ucsd.edu
858-246-1124
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 11-Jan-2017
Science Advances
Release of water shakes Pacific Plate at depth
A team of seismologists analyzing the data from 671 earthquakes that occurred between 30 and 280 miles beneath the Earth's surface in the Pacific Plate as it descended into the Tonga Trench were surprised to find a zone of intense earthquake activity in the downgoing slab. The pattern of the activity along the slab provided strong evidence that the earthquakes are sparked by the release of water at depth.
National Science Foundation, McDonnell Insternational Scholars Academy, Washington University, Cecil H. And Ida M. Green Foundation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Contact: Diana Lutz
dlutz@wustl.edu
314-935-5272
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 11-Jan-2017
Ecology Letters
Tree-bark thickness indicates fire-resistance in a hotter future
A new study has found that trees worldwide develop thicker bark when they live in fire-prone areas. The findings suggest that bark thickness could help predict which forests and savannas will survive a warmer climate in which wildfires are expected to increase in frequency.
National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association

Contact: Catherine Zandonella
czandone@princeton.edu
609-258-0541
Princeton University

Public Release: 10-Jan-2017
IUPUI-based engineering startup receives $225,000 NSF grant to improve hydrogen fuel storage
Green Fortress Engineering Inc. has received a one-year STTR Phase I grant from the National Science Foundation to develop its solid-state hydrogen storage technology.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Steve Martin
stgmart@iu.edu
317-278-1505
Indiana University

Public Release: 10-Jan-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Killing time: Study sheds light on phages and precision cell destruction
Phage therapy, which exploits the ability of certain viruses to infect and replicate within bacteria, shows promise for treating antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. But designing such therapies depends on understanding how phages work. Phages can kill the cell immediately, or become dormant and kill it later, with a high level of precision in kill time. Researchers from the University of Delaware and City University of New York shed light on the molecular process in PNAS.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Peter Bothum
pbothum@udel.edu
302-831-1418
University of Delaware

Public Release: 10-Jan-2017
Nature Communications
Essential quality control system in cells identifies and destroys faulty genetic material
New research out of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine describes a mechanism by which an essential quality control system in cells identifies and destroys faulty genetic material. The findings were published online Dec. 23 in Nature Communications.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Marc Kaplan
Marc.Kaplan@case.edu
216-368-4692
Case Western Reserve University

Public Release: 10-Jan-2017
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Next-generation optics offer the widest real-time views of vast regions of the sun
A groundbreaking new optical device, developed at NJIT's Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) to correct images of the Sun distorted by multiple layers of atmospheric turbulence, is providing scientists with the most precisely detailed, real-time pictures to date of solar activity occurring across vast stretches of the star's surface.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tracey Regan
tregan@njit.edu
201-388-0232
New Jersey Institute of Technology

Public Release: 10-Jan-2017
Nature Geoscience
Rapid Arctic warming has in the past shifted Southern Ocean winds
Ice core records from the two poles show that during the last ice age, sharp spikes in Arctic temperatures shifted the position of winds around Antarctica.
National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, UW-based Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, NASA, Achievement Rewards for College Scientists Foundation

Contact: Hannah Hickey
hickeyh@uw.edu
206-543-2580
University of Washington

Public Release: 10-Jan-2017
NYU psychology professor Freeman receives NSF CAREER Award to study 'stereotypic vision'
Jonathan Freeman, an assistant professor in NYU's Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, has received a National Science Foundation CAREER award, which will support research aimed at gaining new insights into 'stereotypic vision' -- how unconscious stereotypes change what we see with our eyes.
National Science Foundation

Contact: James Devitt
james.devitt@nyu.edu
212-998-6808
New York University

Public Release: 9-Jan-2017
Nature
Boston College and MIT chemists report E-selective macrocyclic ring-closing metathesis
Using ring-closing metathesis to exploit the properties of carbon-carbon double bonds, researchers from Boston College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have developed a new catalytic approach for the preparation of compounds essential to drug discovery, the team reported today in the advance online publication of the journal Nature.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Ed Hayward
ed.hayward@bc.edu
617-552-4826
Boston College

Public Release: 9-Jan-2017
Theoretical Population Biology
An ecological invasion mimics a drunken walk
A theory that uses the mathematics of a drunken walk describes ecological invasions better than waves, according to Tim Reluga, associate professor of mathematics and biology, Penn State.
National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State

Public Release: 9-Jan-2017
Environmental Science & Technology
Species diversity reduces chances of crop failure in algal biofuel systems
When growing algae in outdoor ponds as a next-generation biofuel, a naturally diverse mix of species will help reduce the chance of crop failure, according to a federally funded study by University of Michigan researchers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jim Erickson
ericksn@umich.edu
734-647-1842
University of Michigan

Public Release: 6-Jan-2017
Science
Large-scale tornado outbreaks increasing in frequency, study finds
The frequency of large-scale tornado outbreaks is increasing in the United States, particularly when it comes to the most extreme events, according to research recently published in Science.
Columbia University Research Initiatives for Science and Engineering, Office of Naval Research, NOAA's Climate Program Office's Modeling, Analysis, Predictions and Projections, Willis Research Network, National Science Foundation

Contact: Greg Borzo
gregborzo@uchicago.edu
773-702-8366
University of Chicago

Public Release: 6-Jan-2017
ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Tailored organoid may help unravel immune response mystery
Cornell and Weill Cornell Medicine researchers report on the use of biomaterials-based organoids in an attempt to reproduce immune-system events and gain a better understanding of B cells.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Thomas Joseph Fleischman
tjf85@cornell.edu
607-255-9735
Cornell University

Public Release: 6-Jan-2017
Global Change Biology
Open-source plant database confirms top US bioenergy crop
Scientists have confirmed that Miscanthus, long speculated to be the top biofuel producer, yields more than twice as much as switchgrass in the US using an open-source bioenergy crop database gaining traction in plant science, climate change, and ecology research.
National Science Foundation, Energy Biosciences Institute

Contact: Claire Benjamin
claire@illinois.edu
Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Public Release: 5-Jan-2017
Global and Planetary Change
Great Barrier Reef almost drowned; climate implications
The first comprehensive analysis of the Great Barrier Reef at a time of rapid sea-level rise during the beginning of the Last Interglacial found it almost died. The Ph.D. research shows the reef can be resilient but questions remain about cumulative impacts. The research also provides an accurate identification of the age of the fossil reef that grew before the modern Great Barrier Reef, some 129,000-121,000 years ago.
Australian Research Council, Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden, and National Science Foundation

Contact: Vivienne Reiner
vivienne.reiner@sydney.edu.au
61-438-021-390
University of Sydney

Public Release: 5-Jan-2017
Global Change Biology
Arctic sea ice loss impacts beluga whale migration
A new University of Washington study finds the annual migration of some beluga whales in Alaska is altered by sea ice changes in the Arctic, while other belugas do not appear to be affected.
National Science Foundation, NASA, UW School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, National Science Foundation's Arctic Observing Network, Russian-American Long-term Census of the Arctic

Contact: Michelle Ma
mcma@uw.edu
206-616-0281
University of Washington

Public Release: 5-Jan-2017
Applications in Plant Sciences
Measuring trees with the speed of sound
Foresters and researchers are using sound to look inside living trees. A new study in Applications in Plant Sciences presents methods for use of sonic tomography, which measures wood decay by sending sound waves through tree trunks. The new study describes optimum placement of the sensors to avoid aberrant tomography results for the non-model tree shapes that populate the tropics and details how to analyze the tomograms to quantify areas of decayed and damaged wood.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Beth Parada
apps@botany.org
Botanical Society of America

Public Release: 5-Jan-2017
Science
Research sheds new light on high-altitude settlement in Tibet
Early Tibetan Plateau settlers managed to survive at high elevation at least 7,400 years ago, before the development of an agricultural economy between 5,200-3,600 years ago.
Austrian Science Fund, National Science Foundation

Contact: Randy Haas
whaas@uwyo.edu
307-766-6920
University of Wyoming

Showing releases 726-750 out of 943.

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