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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 76-100 out of 1152.

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Public Release: 9-Nov-2017
Social Science and Medicine
A neighborhood's quality influences children's behaviors through teens, study suggests
The quality of the neighborhood where a child grows up has a significant impact on the number of problem behaviors they display during elementary and teenage years, a study led by Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health researchers suggests. 
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Barbara Benham
Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health

Public Release: 9-Nov-2017
Scientific Reports
China's sulfur dioxide emissions fell significantly while India's grew over last decade
Sulfur dioxide is an air pollutant that causes acid rain, haze and many health-related problems. It is produced predominantly when coal is burned to generate electricity. Although China and India remain the world's largest consumers of coal, a new University of Maryland-led study found that China's sulfur dioxide emissions fell by 75 percent since 2007, while India's emissions increased by 50 percent.
NASA Earth Science Division Aura Science Team, National Science Foundation, NASA's Earth Science New Investigator Program, National Natural Science Foundation of China

Contact: Irene Ying
University of Maryland

Public Release: 9-Nov-2017
Scientific Reports
A giant, prehistoric otter's surprisingly powerful bite
A massive, wolf-sized otter that lived about 6 million years ago may have been a dominant predator in its time, according to a new analysis of the animal's jaws. When scientists used computers to simulate how biting would strain S. melilutra's jaws, they concluded that the animal had much firmer jaw bones than expected, giving it a surprisingly strong bite.
National Science Foundation, Yunnan Natural Science Foundation, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Governments of Zhaotong and Zhaoyang

Contact: Charlotte Hsu
University at Buffalo

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scientists find missing clue to how HIV hacks cells to propagate itself
Computer modeling has helped a team of scientists, including several scholars from the University of Chicago, to decode previously unknown details about the 'budding' process by which HIV forces cells to spread the virus to other cells. The findings, published Nov. 7 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, may offer a new avenue for drugs to combat the virus.
National Institutes of Health, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Chica un Heinz Schaller Siftung, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, National Science Foundation, State of Illinois

Contact: Louise Lerner
University of Chicago

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Nano Letters
Nanoparticles can limit inflammation by distracting the immune system
A surprise finding suggests that an injection of nanoparticles may be able to help fight the immune system when it goes haywire, researchers at the University of Michigan have shown. The nanoparticles divert immune cells that cause inflammation away from an injury site.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, University of Michigan

Contact: Katherine McAlpine
University of Michigan

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Cell Host & Microbe
Researchers discover new mechanism for battling influenza
Just as flu season swings into full gear, researchers from the University of Colorado Boulder and University of Texas at Austin have uncovered a previously unknown mechanism by which the human immune system tries to battle the influenza A virus. The discovery sheds new light on how the virus -- which kills 12,000 to 56,000 people in the United States annually -- often wins, and it could ultimately lead to new treatments.
National Institutes of Health, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, National Science Foundation

Contact: Nicholas Meyerson
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Nanoshells could deliver more chemo with fewer side effects
Researchers investigating ways to deliver high doses of cancer-killing drugs inside tumors have shown they can use a laser and light-activated gold nanoparticles to remotely trigger the release of FDA-approved cancer drugs inside cancer cells in laboratory cultures.
US Department of Defense, Breast Cancer Research Program, Welch Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Nature Photonics
Researchers develop flexible, stretchable photonic devices
Researchers at MIT and elsewhere have developed a way to make optically based microchips that can flex and bend like rubber and could be used for skin-mounted diagnostics or flexible strain sensors.
National Science Foundation, MIT Microsystems Technology Laboratories

Contact: Ms. Karl-Lydie Jean-Baptiste
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Nature Communications
Video of blood clot contraction reveals how platelets naturally form unobtrusive clots
The first view of the physical mechanism of how a blood clot contracts at the level of individual platelets is giving researchers a new look at a natural process that is part of blood clotting. The team describes how specialized proteins in platelets cause clots to shrink in size.
National Institutes of Health, Scientist Development Grant, American Heart Association, Walter Cancer Foundation, Program for Competitive Growth Kazan Federal University, National Science Foundation

Contact: Karen Kreeger
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Seagrass biodiversity is both a goal and a means for restoration
Planting multiple seagrass species, rather than a single species, could be better for restoring damaged coastal ecosystems in Indonesia's Coral Triangle.
US Agency-International Development, National Science Foundation, Mars Symbioscience

Contact: Kat Kerlin
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Cell Reports
Survival of the least-fit: Antiviral drug selectively targets the nastiest viruses
An antiviral drug that inhibits a virus' replication machinery selectively targets the most aggressive viruses, according to new research that looked at the infection of individual cells by a virus and the consequence of antiviral intervention.
Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences at Penn State, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Penn State Center for Nanoscale Science

Contact: Barbara Kennedy
Penn State

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Nature Communications
Professor develops algorithm to understand electron dynamics in light-harvesting reactions
Uh researcher to answer fundamental quantum physics question: how can a particle appear in two places at once? NSF grant tackles the duality.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sara Tubbs
University of Houston

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Current Directions in Psychological Science
Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ
The first study of individual variation in visual ability has shown that there is a broad range of differences in people's capability for recognizing and remembering novel objects and has determined that these variations are not associated with individuals' general intelligence, or IQ.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David F. Salisbury
Vanderbilt University

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Nature Communications
A new way to mix oil and water
MIT researchers discovered a new way to get oil and water to mix, and stay mixed, by harnessing the condensation of water onto an oil-surfactant mixture. The process creates a nanoscale emulsion that remains stable for months.
MIT Energy Initiative, National Science Foundation, Society in Science fellowship

Contact: Ms. Karl-Lydie Jean-Baptiste
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Data Science Institute develops statistical method that makes better predictions
A team of statisticians from the Data Science Institute (DSI) received a National Science Foundation grant ($900,000) to develop a statistical method that will help researchers who work with big data make better predictions.
National Science Foundation

Contact: robert florida
Data Science Institute at Columbia

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Research could 'untangle' vexing problem in computer-simulation technology
With a new $250,000 award from the National Science Foundation, Suzanne Shontz will explore new methods for addressing the tangled mesh problem in computer simulations.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Brendan M Lynch
University of Kansas

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Arid Land Systems: Science and Societies
Virginia Tech researchers explore causes of land cover change in African savannas
Elephants are often blamed for extensive loss of woody vegetation in Northern Botswana, but study results suggest that this may not be the case.
National Science Foundation, Forest Conservation Botswana

Contact: Heidi Ketler
Virginia Tech

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Applications in Plant Sciences
Sifting gold from the data deluge
Next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have flooded databases and hard drives worldwide with large data sets, but are researchers getting the most they can out of this deluge of data? A new study demonstrates a data mining technique that can be used to glean valuable information from existing data sets, and proves the concept by retrieving sequence from genes influencing the peculiar floral structures seen in the plant family Goodeniaceae.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Beth Parada
Botanical Society of America

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
'Bursts' of beta waves, not sustained rhythms, filter sensory processing in brain
Scientists at Brown University have found that people and mice alike use brief bursts of beta brainwaves, rather than sustained rhythms, to control attention and perception.
National Institutes of Health, US Department of Veterans Affairs, National Science Foundation, Brown Institute for Brain Science, Fulbright Association

Contact: David Orenstein
Brown University

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Science Advances
Ecological Restoration success higher with natural measures than active measures
In forest restoration, letting nature take its course may be the most effective and least expensive means of restoring biodiversity and vegetation structure of tropical forests. With global efforts to secure pledges for restoration of 350 million hectares of degraded forests, researchers argue these commitments don't have to be as costly or labor intensive as many think as long as a well-informed, combined approach of active and natural measures is taken.
Australian Research Council, Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel of Brazil, PARTNERS Research Coordination Network, PARTNERS Research Coordination Network from the National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Chazdon
University of Connecticut

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
How ice in clouds is born
When water droplets freeze in clouds, the structure of the ice crystal isn't necessarily the classic hexagonal snowflake structure. Rather, a more disordered ice structure forms more easily than hexagonal ice under certain cloud conditions, allowing the water droplets in clouds to turn to ice more rapidly than previously predicted. The work reconciles theoretical models of clouds with observations of freezing rates.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Paul Gabrielsen
University of Utah

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Lab on a Chip
Sensors applied to plant leaves warn of water shortage
MIT engineers have created sensors that can be printed onto plant leaves and reveal when the plants are experiencing a water shortage, which could give farmers an early warning when their crops are in danger.
US Department of Energy, Swiss National Science Foundation, Singapore's Agency for Science, Research, and Technology

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Mount Sinai scientists create first mathematical model that predicts immunotherapy success
Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have created the first mathematical model that can predict how a cancer patient will benefit from certain immunotherapies, according to a study published in Nature.
Stand Up To Cancer, American Cancer Society, National Science Foundation, Janssen Research & Development LLC, STARR Cancer Consortium, Pershing Square Sohn Cancer Research Alliance, National Institutes of Health, V Foundation

Contact: Marlene Naanes
The Mount Sinai Hospital / Mount Sinai School of Medicine

Public Release: 7-Nov-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
'Zombie ant' brains left intact by fungal parasite
A fungal parasite that infects ants and manipulates their behavior to benefit the fungus' reproduction accomplishes this feat without infecting the ants' brains, according to a study led by Penn State researchers.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Comissao de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nival Superior-Brazil, American Heart Association

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 7-Nov-2017
American Naturalist
Rival sperm and choosy eggs
The delicately mannered dance between discerning eggs and vying sperm is more complicated than scientists once believed, and it may hold secrets about the evolution of new species.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Zachary Boehm
Florida State University

Showing releases 76-100 out of 1152.

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