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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 776-800 out of 862.

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Public Release: 13-Apr-2016
Bubbles lead to disaster
Why are volcanologists interested in vapour bubbles? Because they can accumulate in a magma reservoir underneath a volcano, priming it to explode. Researchers at ETH Zurich and Georgia Institute of Technology have now discovered how bubbles are able to accumulate in the magma.
Swiss National Science Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Dr. Andrea Parmigiani
ETH Zurich

Public Release: 12-Apr-2016
Applied Geochemistry
Oxygen key to containing coal ash contamination
The level of oxygen in a coal ash disposal site can greatly affect how much toxic selenium and arsenic can be leached from the system.
National Science Foundation, Environmental Research and Education Foundation

Contact: Ken Kingery
Duke University

Public Release: 12-Apr-2016
Evolutionary Anthropology
The pyrophilic primate
Fire, a tool broadly used for cooking, constructing, hunting and even communicating, was arguably one of the earliest discoveries in human history. But when, how and why it came to be used is hotly debated among scientists. A new scenario crafted by University of Utah anthropologists proposes that human ancestors became dependent on fire as a result of Africa's increasingly fire-prone environment 2-3 million years ago.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Chanapa Tantibanchachai
University of Utah

Public Release: 12-Apr-2016
PLOS Biology
How the brain produces consciousness in 'time slices'
EPFL scientists propose a new way of understanding of how the brain processes unconscious information into our consciousness. According to the model, consciousness arises only in time intervals of up to 400 milliseconds, with gaps of unconsciousness in between.
Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 12-Apr-2016
Environmental Research Letters
How climate change dries up mountain streams
The western United States relies on mountain snow for its water supply. Water stored as snow in the mountains during winter replenishes groundwater and drives river runoff in spring, filling reservoirs for use later in summer. But how could a warming globe and a changing climate interrupt this process?
National Science Foundation, Dean's Fellowship from the Colorado School of MInes

Contact: Paul Gabrielsen
University of Utah

Public Release: 11-Apr-2016
UMass Amherst geoscientists to reconstruct climate at old Norse settlements in Greenland
The National Science Foundation has awarded $348,218 to climate researchers Raymond Bradley and Isla Castaneda at the University of Massachusetts Amherst to analyze sediment records from Greenland's lakes, where Vikings once settled. Researchers will use newly available organic geochemical techniques in the laboratory to reconstruct past temperature and estimate changes in evaporation over time. These analyses should shed light on climate variations during the period of Norse settlement.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Janet Lathrop
University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Public Release: 11-Apr-2016
Nature Geoscience
Fertilizer's legacy: Taking a toll on land and water
For the first time, an international group of scientists, including researchers from Arizona State University, has come up with a way to estimate on a large scale how phosphorus flows through an environment over many decades. By doing so, researchers are gaining a better understanding of how and where phosphorus accumulates.
NSF/Research Coordination Network Science, Engineering, and Education for Sustainability Program, University of Notre Dame/Environmental Change Initiative, National Basic Research Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China

Contact: Sandra Leander
Arizona State University

Public Release: 11-Apr-2016
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Brittle is better for making cement
Rice University researchers model defects found in raw silicates used to make cement and affect the amount of energy used to manufacture concrete. Concrete manufacture is a major contributor of carbon dioxide emissions that impact climate change.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 11-Apr-2016
Journal of General Physiology
Face- and eye-muscle research sheds new light on Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Researchers at Basel University Hospital in Switzerland investigate the biochemical and physiological characteristics of orbicularis oculi, a group of facial muscles that control the eyelids and are selectively spared or involved in different neuromuscular disorders. What they found also helps to explain why another set of muscles -- the extraocular muscles that control the movement of the eye -- are not affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy, congenital muscular dystrophy, and aging.
Swiss National Science Foundation, Basel University Hospital

Contact: Rory Williams
Rockefeller University Press

Public Release: 10-Apr-2016
Nature Communications
Topology explains queer electrical current boost in non-magnetic metal
Applying a magnetic field to PdCo2, a non-magnetic metal, made it conduct 70 percent more electricity, even though basic physics principles would have predicted the opposite.
National Science Foundation, State of Florida, National Institute for Materials Science, High Field Magnet Laboratory, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, DOE/Office of Basic Energy Sciences

Contact: Anna Ikarashi
Kyoto University

Public Release: 8-Apr-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Pinpointing the effects of fertilizer
Plant biologists at the University of Illinois and Michigan State University have pinpointed the area of genomes within nitrogen-fixing bacteria in roots, called rhizobia, that's being altered when the plant they serve is exposed to nitrogen fertilizer.
National Science Foundation, National Science Foundation Long-Term Ecological Research Program at Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University AgBio Research

Contact: Katy Heath
University of Illinois College of Liberal Arts & Sciences

Public Release: 8-Apr-2016
Changing monsoon patterns, more rain contribute to lower tea yield in Chinese provinces
Longer monsoon seasons with increased daily rainfall, aspects of climate change, are contributing to reduced tea yield in regions of China, with implications for crop management and harvesting strategies, according to findings by a global interdisciplinary team led by Tufts University researchers and published online today in Climate.
National Science Foundation Couple Natural Human Systems Program, Tufts Collaborates, Tufts University, Friedman Family Foundation

Contact: Patrick Collins
Tufts University

Public Release: 8-Apr-2016
81st annual meeting of the Society of American Archaeology
New discoveries into how an ancient civilization conserved water
High-resolution, aerial imagery bears significance for researchers on the ground investigating how remote, ancient Maya civilizations used and conserved water.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dawn Fuller
University of Cincinnati

Public Release: 8-Apr-2016
Nature Communications
Scientists to unlock the secrets of DNA sequence
The team -- made up of scientists from the University of Illinois Center for the Physics of Living Cells in the United States, Johns Hopkins University in the United States, and UNIST -- discovered that DNA molecules directly interact with one another based on sequence even in the absence of protein molecules.
National Science Foundation, National Research Foundation of Korea

Contact: JooHyeon Heo
Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology(UNIST)

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Biomedical Materials
Methods used to create textiles also could help manufacture human tissues
Tissue engineering is a process that uses novel biomaterials seeded with stem cells to grow and replace missing tissues. When certain types of materials are used, the 'scaffold' that are created to hold stem cells eventually degrade, leaving natural tissue in its place. Elizabeth Loboa, dean of the MU College of Engineering, and her team recently tested new methods to make the process of tissue engineering more cost effective and producible in larger quantities.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeff Sossamon
University of Missouri-Columbia

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Nano Energy
Catalyst could make production of key chemical more eco-friendly
A new catalyst combining copper nanoparticles with a special type of graphene could lead to a greener way of producing ethylene, a key commodity chemical.
US Army Research Laboratory, US Army Research Office, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Stacey
Brown University

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Systems Biology and Applications
Dynamic model helps understand healthy lakes to heal sick ones
Development of a dynamic model for microbial populations in healthy lakes could help scientists understand what's wrong with sick lakes, prescribe cures and predict what may happen as environmental conditions change. Those are among the benefits expected from an ambitious project to model the interactions of some 18,000 species in a well-studied Wisconsin lake.
National Science Foundation

Contact: John Toon
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Physical Review Letters
Oregon researchers use light and sound waves to control electron states
University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jim Barlow
University of Oregon

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
ACM International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating System
UW team stores digital images in DNA -- and retrieves them perfectly
University of Washington and Microsoft researchers have developed one of the first complete systems to store digital data in DNA -- enabling companies to store data that today would fill a Walmart supercenter in a space the size of a sugar cube.
Microsoft Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jennifer Langston
University of Washington

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Nature Communications
Can corals keep up with ocean acidification?
An interdisciplinary team of researchers led by University of Delaware professors Wei-Jun Cai and Mark Warner has successfully measured both pH and carbonate ion concentration directly inside the calcifying fluid found in coral, an important development in the study of how ocean acidification will affect marine calcifying organisms such as corals and shellfish.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Peter Bothum
University of Delaware

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Protein SIRT5 linked to healthy heart function
Cornell researchers, working in collaboration with scientists in Switzerland, have identified a strong connection between a protein, SIRT5, and healthy heart function. SIRT5 has the ability to remove a harmful protein modification known as lysine succinylation, which robs the heart of its ability to burn fatty acids efficiently to generate the energy needed for pumping.
National Institutes of Health, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Daryl Lovell
Cornell University

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Penn engineers develop first transistors made entirely of nanocrystal 'inks'
University of Pennsylvania engineers have shown a new approach for making transistors and other electrical devices: sequentially depositing their components in the form of liquid nanocrystal 'inks.'
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Office of Naval Research

Contact: Evan Lerner
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
UC Berkeley, Stanford find LA LGBT Center's canvassing conversations reduce transphobia
Stanford University and UC Berkeley researchers report that volunteer canvassers -- both transgender and not -- reduced voters' prejudice against transgender people. Last year the researchers triggered fierce debate about the need for transparency in social science research when they raised doubts about a now-retracted study of the Los Angeles LGBT Center's door-to-door canvassing on gay marriage by other researchers that appeared in Science. They discovered irregularities in that study's data while conducting this follow-up study.
Gill Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Maclay
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 7-Apr-2016
Current Biology
Smithsonian and collaborators find that trap-jaw spiders strike prey with lightning speed
A team of researchers led by Smithsonian scientist Hannah Wood has discovered that trap-jaw spiders have a surprising ability to strike their prey at lightning speed and with super-spider power, according to new findings reported in the scholarly journal Current Biology.
National Science Foundation, The Lindsay Expedition, California Academy of Sciences/Exline-Frizzell Funds, The Schlinger Foundation

Contact: Ryan Lavery

Public Release: 6-Apr-2016
UOG scientists seek genetic reasons for coral reef survival
Coral reefs around the world are increasingly under threat from coral bleaching which destroys colonies and interrupts the food chain they support. Scientists at the University of Guam Marine Laboratory are using a new genetic sequencer to search for the biological mechanisms that allow some colonies to survive and thrive while others die.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Laura Biggs
University of Guam

Showing releases 776-800 out of 862.

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