Divorced older men - a growing segment of the population - are 'significantly disadvantaged' when it comes to involvement in formal organisations, or with family, friends and neighbours, according to the report. It calls for policy makers to recognise their special needs.
Older men prefer not to frequent day centres and luncheon clubs because they feel they are too heavily geared to the needs of older women. Little is offered to interest men, says co-director of the study, Dr Kate Davidson of the Centre for Research on Ageing and Gender, University of Surrey.
Groups aimed specifically at older people are seen by men as places for people who have 'given up'. They avoid day centres dominated by older women and regard them as a last resort should they become incapacitated.
Said Dr Davidson: "The perception was that the only activities at day centres involved sitting around, chatting or playing Bingo - the sort of thing 'old women' enjoy doing. Efforts must be made to make these clubs more attractive to older men so that they do not feel they are 'yielding up' their individuality or admitting 'defeat'. They could, as happens in a few cases, offer wine and beer with lunch, a snooker table or a computer club."
Co-director, Professor Sara Arber said:"Over recent years there have been substantial advances in our understanding of the lives of older women, but older men have been largely neglected. This research has redressed the imbalance."
The researchers found that older working class men are less involved in community and religious organisations and sports clubs but more likely than middle class men to belong to social clubs. Many who belonged to social groups had done so for a long time and remained active in sport clubs or undertaking useful community or voluntary work.
Dr Davidson said that men saw women as key to building and keeping groups of friends and contacts and that these contracted when they were left alone through divorce, widowhood or simply because they never married.
Older men more often chat to neighbours but are less likely than women to give and receive favours, particularly if living alone. Widowers tend to rely on adult children for support. For divorced men, ties with adult children are less strong, and men who have never married also have few close relationships.
Professor Arber said: "Our research shows how masculinity continues to shape men's experiences and activities in late life, despite the onset of ill-health, widowhood or living alone."
Dr Davidson added: "The customary approach to health improvement has been to target individuals, but less attention has been paid to the broad picture including biological, social, cultural and economic factors that shape the way men act."
For further information, contact:
Professor Sara Arber on 01483 689445 e-mail: S.Arber@surrey.ac.uk
Dr Kate Davidson on 01483 683964 e-mail: K.Davidson@surrey.ac.uk
Or Iain Stewart at the ESRC on 01793 413032 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
NOTES FOR EDITORS
1. The research report 'Older Men: Their Social Worlds and Healthy Lifestyles' was funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). Professor Arber and Dr Davidson are at the Centre for Research on Ageing and Gender, Department of Sociology, University of Surrey, GUILDFORD, Surrey GU2 7XH.
2. The ESRC is the UK's largest funding agency for research and postgraduate training relating to social and economic issues. It provides independent, high-quality, relevant research to business, the public sector and Government. The ESRC invests more than £76 million every year in social science and at any time is supporting some 2,000 researchers in academic institutions and research policy institutes. It also funds postgraduate training within the social sciences to nurture the researchers of tomorrow. More at http://www.
3. REGARD is the ESRC's database of research. It provides a key source of information on ESRC social science research awards and all associated publications and products. The website can be found at http://www.