Alone, each risk factor conveys increased cardiovascular disease risk, but in combination they enhance the patient's risk.10 Presence of the metabolic syndrome significantly increases the risk of heart attack, type 2 diabetes and death.2,4
Non-HDL-C is calculated routinely as the amount of total cholesterol (TC) minus the amount of HDL-C. Therefore, non-HDL-C is important as it refers to all the atherogenic lipoproteins fractions.11 High levels of these are an important factor in the development of atherosclerosis.
The term cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to a wide range of disorders affecting the heart and blood vessels. CVD can be sub-divided into the following diseases:
CVD is estimated to account for approximately a third of all deaths globally and is the leading cause of mortality in Europe and the US. Over 16.7 million deaths each year are due to CVD (more than 45,000 deaths every day, and almost 32 deaths each minute).12 In Europe, about half of all deaths from CVD are from CHD and nearly one-third are from stroke.13
For more information please refer to the media backgrounders, 'The metabolic syndrome', 'STELLAR study', 'GALAXY Programme' and 'GALAXY Programme studies', which can be found on: www.AstraZenecaPressOffice.com
Additional data at ACC
AstraZeneca will be presenting important new data for EXANTA and ATACAND during the ACC 2004:
New CRESTOR data at the European Atherosclerosis Society Congress
New CRESTOR data looking at its effect on patients with type 2 diabetes will be presented at the European Atherosclerosis Society Congress in Seville, from 17-20 April 2004. For more information about AstraZeneca media activities at this congress please contact: Ellie Goss on 44-207-471-1519 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
1. Deedwania P & Hunninghake D. Comparative Effects of Statins on Atherogenic Dyslipidemia in Patients With the Metabolic Syndrome. 53rd American College of Cardiology (ACC) Congress in New Orleans, USA, March 2004
2. Isomaa B, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2001;24:683-9
3. Ford ES, et al. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association 2002;287:356-9
4. Meigs JB. Epidemiology of the metabolic syndrome. American Journal of Managed Care 2002;8:S282-92
5. Executive summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001;285:2486-2497. Also available on-line: http://www.
6. de Backer G, Ambrosioni E, Borch-Johnsen K et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. European Heart Journal 2003;24:1601-10
7. Jones P, Davidson M, Stein E et al. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin across doses. American Journal of Cardiology 2003;92:152-160
8. Stender S, Schuster H, Barter P et al. Comparing the Effects of Statins on Cholesterol Goal Achievement and Plasma Lipids in Hypercholesterolaemic Patients with and those without the Metabolic Syndrome: Results from the MERCURY I Trial. Diabetes Metab 2003;29 (Suppl):4S138 Abstract 1833
9. Stalenhoef AFH, Ballantyne CM, Sarti C et al. A COmparative study with rosuvastatin in subjects with METabolic Syndrome: rationale and design of the COMETS study. Diabetes Metab 2003;29(Suppl):4S318 Abstract 2559
10. Kaplan NM. The deadly quartet: upper body adiposity, glucose intolerance, hypertrigylceridaemia and hypertension. Archives of Internal Medicine 1989;149:1514-20
11. Cui Y, et al. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level predictor of cardiovascular disease mortality. Archives of Internal Medicine 2001;161:1413-9
12. World Health Report 2003. World Health Organization. http://www.
13. European Cardiovascular Disease Statistics, 2000 Edition, British Heart Foundation. http://www.