Public Release: 

Zinc supplements could help treat ADHD

BioMed Central

As attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects around 1 in every 25 school-aged children, managing this condition is of huge social importance. An article published in BMC Psychiatry this week shows that zinc supplements could increase the effectiveness of stimulants used to treat children with the disease.

The effects of ADHD on individual children differ, but symptoms include inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Stimulants are the most common treatment prescribed, but recent findings that vitamin and mineral deficiencies correlate with ADHD suggest that dietary supplements could also play a role in disease management.

Researchers from Iran carried out a controlled trial to assess the benefits of prescribing supplementary zinc alongside the more conventional methylphenidate treatment. They found that children taking additional zinc sulphate on a daily basis improved faster than those taking a placebo.

"The efficacy of zinc sulphate to increase the rate of improvement in children, seems to support the role of zinc deficiency in the pathogenesis of ADHD," say the authors.

The study comprised 44 children who were diagnosed as suffering from ADHD at Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran. Prior to the trial none of these patients had taken any medication for their condition.

For the six weeks of the trial, half the children took zinc sulphate (55mg/day) in addition to the conventional treatment; the other half took a placebo. A child psychiatrist assessed the children's condition fortnightly.

The behaviour of both groups of children improved over the course of the trial, but the children taking the zinc supplements showed a more marked improvement in their condition after six weeks, compared with those taking the placebo.

Although the children taking zinc sulphate were three times more likely to report that they were suffering from nausea, the frequency of other side effects did not differ between the two study groups. However, almost all of the children taking supplementary zinc complained about the metallic taste of the tablets.

Zinc supplements may exert their positive effects by helping to regulate the function of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine signalling, which has been implicated in causing symptoms of ADHD, is believed to play an important role in the feelings of pleasure and reward.

The authors acknowledge that their study is only small. They suggest that further research in this area is needed to confirm the positive effects of zinc supplements on children with ADHD.

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This press release is based on the following article:

Zinc sulphate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: A double blind and randomized trial [ISRCTN64132371]
Shahin Akhondzadeh, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi, Mojgan Khademi
BMC Psychiatry 2004, 4:8

Upon publication this article will be freely available according to BMC Psychiatry's Open Access policy at http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/4/8/

Please cite the journal in any stories you write, and link to the article if you are writing for the web.

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For further information about this research please contact Dr Shahin Akhondzadeh by email at s.akhond@neda.net or by phone on 98-21-889-6692 (work) or 98-21-828-3124 (home).

Alternatively, or for more information about the journal or Open Access publishing, contact Gemma Bradley by phone on 44-207-323-0323 or by email at press@biomedcentral.com

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BMC Psychiatry (http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcpsychiatr) is published by BioMed Central (http://www.biomedcentral.com), an independent online publishing house committed to providing Open Access to peer-reviewed biological and medical research. This commitment is based on the view that immediate free access to research and the ability to freely archive and reuse published information is essential to the rapid and efficient communication of science. BioMed Central currently publishes over 100 journals across biology and medicine. In addition to open-access original research, BioMed Central also publishes reviews, commentaries and other non-original-research content. Depending on the policies of the individual journal, this content may be open access or provided only to subscribers.

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