Public Release: 

First diesel military motorcycle to hit the road

Cranfield University

A unique technology partnership between Cranfield University and California-based Hayes Diversified Technologies (HDT) has created the world's first production diesel military motorbike - and the first bike of any kind with a purpose-designed diesel power unit.

An initial order for 522 diesel motorcycles has already been placed by the US Marines. Delivery is due to commence in early 2005. In addition, keen interest is being shown by the US Army, the UK Ministry of Defence and other NATO forces.

John Crocker worked alongside project leader Dr Stuart McGuigan of the Engineering Systems Department, Cranfield University at Shrivenham, Oxfordshire to design the diesel power unit.

The challenge was to come up with a low technical risk design that was sufficiently light and powerful, and with an engine speed (RPM) range wide enough to give the level of performance required for use as a tactical vehicle.

John said: "The motorcycle also had to meet strict NATO requirements for all armed forces to operate their entire inventory of vehicles and powered equipment on either diesel fuel or aviation grade kerosene.

"This capability has major logistic advantages in obviating the need to carry other fuels to battle. And their lower flammability, in comparison with petrol, also greatly reduces fire hazards."

This is a 'world first', in that the team was able to design and develop a motorcycle engine powerful enough to be used on the battlefield for reconnaissance, policing and courier duties as well as for on-road and off-road performance.

And so powerful is the motorcycle that in September 2004 it set the world's first land speed record for a diesel fuelled motorcycle.

Fred Hayes, founder of HDT, who was in the saddle at the world famous Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah, said: "The event was marred by rain the previous week and by poor track conditions, which limited the top speeds due to soft, wet salt. The normally aspirated bike was officially timed by the AMA at 85.466mph, against our calculated top speed of 86mph with production gearing. The calculated speed was at sea level (4350ft) on hard pavement. We're delighted with the result. If we'd had an option for gearing and more track time, we may have broken the 90mph barrier."

The production motorcycle is based on the running gear of a Kawasaki KLR650 petrol-engine trail bike.

The engine of the diesel motorcycle is a liquid cooled, single cylinder four- stroke which displaces 584 cm³ and currently produces some 21 kw (28 bhp).

It is a double overhead camshaft design, with a four-valve cylinder head. A multi-cylinder engine was rejected as unnecessary because of the increased weight and because diesel engines work less efficiently in small cylinder sizes.

Cranfield University and HDT beat off stiff competition for the US Marines contract, including European manufacturers as well as the well established Harley Davidson that had teamed up with Lockheed.

Fred does not rule out that the motorcycle may be made available for the consumer market. "Although the motorcycle is about 20-30% more expensive than a comparative conventional motorcycle, there would be cost savings for riders and environmental benefits in that the diesel motorcycle can do 110 miles per gallon - a little over twice the range of a conventional motorcycle," said Fred.

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Media enquiries

For further information about this release, please contact Ardi Kolah Director of Marketing & Communication (Defence), Cranfield University
T: 01793 785435 M:077100 77941 E: a.kolah@cranfield.ac.uk

Photos
A selection of high resolution images are available on request.

Interviews
Interviews with Stuart McGuigan and John Crocker, Cranfield University and Fred Hayes, president, Hayes Diversified Technologies available on request.

Motorcycles for the Developing World
In third-world countries where motorcycles are still widely used for every-day transport, rather than as leisure vehicles, the improved fuel economy of a diesel bike, perhaps of somewhat lower performance than the current military unit, would bring major economic advantages and conserve scarce fuel resources. The engine could also be run on kerosene or bio-diesel, if required.

Lightweight All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs)
The use of light four-wheeled ATVs ('quad bikes') in agriculture, horticulture, forestry and prospecting is expanding rapidly in many countries. The HDT-Cranfield University motorcycle engine would be ideally suited for adaption to ATV applications and would enable users to employ a common fuel with tractors, other vehicles and implements, achieve much improved fuel economy and take advantage of tax-free agri-diesel fuel. Work in this area is already underway.

Lightweight, High Output Industrial Engines
The motorcycle power unit would also form an ideal basis for a light industrial diesel engine for powering pumps, generators and similar portable industrial equipment. Such a unit would offer a power-to-weight ratio around twice as good as current small industrial diesels. Development of the engine for this type of application is under active consideration by HDT and Cranfield University.

Engines for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Light Aircraft
A twin or multi-cylinder diesel engine based on the design principles adopted for the motorcycle power unit would be attractive for small aero engines. Though heavier than the two-stroke petrol engines currently used in this field, the superior fuel consumption would reduce the fuel load for a given endurance. The high reliability of the diesel engine and absence of a high-tension electrical system would be additional advantages.

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