The research, which appears in the current issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease (http://www.
Led by Benjamin Wolozin, MD, PhD, professor of pharmacology at BUSM, researchers compared 5,216 people who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and 3,954 people who had a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in 1996 and 1997. Over the course of five years, 78 of the patients who had bypass surgery and 41 of those who had angioplasty developed Alzheimer's disease.
"The coronary bypass patients had a 70 percent increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease," said Wolozin, co-author of the study. "This increased incidence of neurocognitive degeneration associated with heart bypass surgery provides further incentive for more studies to better characterize the risks of cardiac surgery on the brain."
According to Wolozin, previous studies show some heart surgery patients experience memory problems immediately following the procedure. However, at a one-year follow-up most patients regain cognitive function.
Researchers believe this early cognitive impairment is an immediate reaction to the stress of surgery.
"Heart bypass surgery represents a traumatic insult to the brain, particularly by reducing oxygen supply to the brain and increasing the stress response," said Wolozin.
"We believe that the compensation that occurs by one year masks an underlying deficit in the central nervous system caused by the heart surgery. As individuals age, this underlying deficit might exacerbate progressive cognitive deficits associated with mild cognitive impairment, a precursory phase before diagnosis of Alzheimer's."
Wolozin and his researchers are currently working with researchers from the Framingham Heart Study to determine if these same observations can be duplicated in their studies.
"If these observations are confirmed, there are measures that can be taken to protect the brain during heart bypass surgery," explained Wolozin. "Antioxidants might offer some protection, as well as memantine, a medication that helps slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease. There may also be other neuroprotective agents still in development that could shield the brain from cognitive degeneration during and following surgery."
The article is "Assessment of the Emergence of Alzheimer's Disease Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery or Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty" by Todd A. Lee, Benjamin Wolozin, Kevin B. Weiss and Martin M. Bednar (Communicated by Craig Atwood). It appears in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Vol. 7, Number 4 published by IOS Press.
About the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
The Journal of Alzheimer's Disease (www.j-alz.com) is an international multidisciplinary journal to facilitate progress in understanding the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, genetics, behavior, treatment and psychology of Alzheimer's disease. The journal publishes research reports, reviews, short communications, book reviews, and letters-to-the-editor. The journal is dedicated to providing an open forum for original research that will expedite our fundamental understanding of Alzheimer's disease.
About IOS Press
Commencing its publishing activities in 1987, IOS Press (www.iospress.com) is a rapidly expanding scientific, technical, medical and professional publishing house focusing on a broad range of subject areas. Headquartered in Amsterdam, IOS Press publishes approximately 100 new books per annum and 70 international journals, covering topics ranging from computer science and mathematics to medicine and the natural sciences. Electronic access to all journals is now available. IOS Press also maintains offices in the Washington, DC area and Berlin and a co-publishing relationship with Ohmsha, Ltd (Tokyo).