Parasitic wasps that lay their eggs on insect hosts often have such a population structure, and work has shown that sex ratios vary with the number of females contributing to a host or group of hosts, as expected. For example, in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis, females vary their offspring sex ratios in response to both the presence of other females on a patch, and the presence of eggs already laid on the host they are about to use themselves. However, often groups of hosts will be a mixture of parasitised and unparasitised hosts, and the mating environment will be influenced by wasps emerging from all the parasitised hosts, some related to each other but some not.
In a new study featured in the September issue of The American Naturalist, David M. Shuker (University of Edinburgh) and colleagues show that females alter the sex ratio they produce on a host by considering whether there are already eggs on the host they are using and if there are other eggs already laid on other hosts in the patch. The researchers developed a new theory to explain what the best sex ratios should be for different situations and to demonstrate that females qualitatively confirm these novel predictions. This suggests that females are incredibly subtle in their use of information from the whole patch when it comes to making their sex ratio decisions.
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David M. Shuker (University of Edinburgh), Ido Pen (University of Groningen), Alison B. Duncan (University of Edinburgh), Sarah E. Reece (University of Edinburgh), and Stuart A. West (University of Edinburgh), "Sex ratios under asymmetrical local mate competition: theory and a test with parasitoid wasps" 166:3 September 2005.