Dr. Miller's study describes three levels of peace: cold (war is absent with localized low-intensity violence, and conflicts are managed) normal (war is absent and conflicts are settled as state governments begin to work together) and warm (war is absent and there are extensive transnational relations and high regional interdependence). After warm peace, the highest level, ethnic conflicts are stabilized and are less likely to lead to violence. His three mechanisms for peacemaking in imbalanced regions begin with the great power strategy. This can lead to a cold peace, as a great power would lend external support that would limit local military powers and constrain a regional actor's ability to use force. The second, the regional conflict resolution strategy can create normal peace with elements including parties agreeing not to intervene in the domestic affairs of other states and resolving conflicts peacefully. The last, regional integration path, can bring warm peace as it promotes radical change-- states acting multilaterally and voluntarily to move some power to supranational institutions. Eventually, the presence and leadership of a great power will be less needed. "In effect, peacemaking strategies bring about the transition from war to peace only if certain conditions exist in the region," Miller states. The study focuses on identifying the regional conditions which make the emergence of peace possible. Different conditions produce different levels of peace.
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Benjamin Miller is an Associate Professor of International Relations at the University of Haifa. His current work focuses on constructing a theory of regional war and peace and applying it to the Balkans, South America, Western Europe and the Middle East in the 19th and 20th centuries. Dr. Miller is available for questions and interviews.
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