Women who work long hours are more likely than men to indulge in unhealthy behaviours such as snacking, smoking and drinking caffeine. A new study funded by the Economic and Social Research Council finds that men and women respond very differently to working long hours.
Researcher Dr Daryl O'Connor explains: "Women who work long hours eat more high fat and high sugar snacks, exercise less, drink more caffeine and, if smokers, smoke more than their male colleagues," he points out. "While for men, working longer hours has no negative impact on exercise, caffeine intake or smoking."
While many women adopt unhealthy behaviours in response to working long hours, researchers believe that, in one respect, working long hours has an equally beneficial effect for both men and women. "The one clear positive impact of working long hours for both sexes is that alcohol consumption is reduced," Dr O'Connor points out.
These findings are part of a wider study conducted by psychologists from Leeds University into the effects of stress on eating. "Stress disrupts people's normal eating habits," Dr O'Connor suggests. "Stress causes people to opt for unhealthy high fat and high sugar snacks in preference to healthier food choices. Also people under stress eat less than usual in their main meals including their vegetable intake but shift their preference to high fat/high sugar snacks instead."
In this study, researchers examined the stress caused by minor events, or hassles, both in and outside work such as having an argument with a colleague or friend, a meeting with your boss, giving a presentation at work, missing a deadline or even losing your keys. Findings show that those who experienced one or more such hassles during the day reported consuming significantly more between-meal snacks than usual but fewer portions of vegetables, not fruit, and a smaller main meal.
Of the different types of stressors, it is mental rather than physical stress that leads people to snack. Researchers categorized daily hassles into four types: ego-threatening, for example, giving a presentation; interpersonal, for example, an argument; work-related, for example, a meeting with your boss and physical, for example, a severe headache or feeling in danger. And while ego-threatening, interpersonal and work-related hassles lead people to snack more, physical stressors actually lead people to snack less.
Moreover, under stress, certain types of people are more likely to snack than others. "Those most at risk of snacking under stress are best described as 'emotional eaters'," Dr O'Connor points out. "These individuals have higher levels of vulnerability and tend to turn to food as an escape from self-awareness. In other words, when they feel anxious or emotionally aroused or negative about themselves, they try to avoid these 'negative' feelings by turning their attention to food."
"Our findings are disturbing in that they show stress produces harmful changes in diet and leads to unhealthy eating behaviours," argues Dr O'Connor. "An overwhelming body of evidence shows the importance of maintaining a balanced diet, including eating a low fat diet and five portions of fruit and vegetables a day, in terms of reducing risk of cardiovascular disease cancer risk.
"Yet our study points to a clear link between stress and a tendency to eat more unhealthy snacks and consume fewer vegetables and less of a balanced main meal."
For further information, contact:
Dr Daryl O'Connor on 0113 3435727 or Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Or Alexandra Saxon or Annika Howard at ESRC, on 01793 413032/413119
Notes for editors
- The research project 'Effects of stress on eating behaviour: an integrated approach' was funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). Dr Daryl O'Connor, Professor Mark Conner, Dr Fiona Jones and Dr Brian McMillan are at the Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, University Road, Leeds, West Yorkshire, LS2 9JT.
- Methodology: In this study, researchers examined the daily hassles and eating behaviour of a sample of 422 participants (193 male and 229 female, mean age 40.32 years). Participants completed an initial demographics questionnaire (height, weight, age etc.), four daily (week long) diaries and a final questionnaire which assessed eating styles, the Big 5 personality dimensions, social support and psychosocial work environment. Weekly fat and fibre consumption was assessed using a self-report questionnaire.
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