Surgery is about to change with the introduction of a new surgical robotic system at the University of Calgary/Calgary Health Region. NeuroArm aims to revolutionize neurosurgery and other branches of operative medicine by liberating them from the constraints of the human hand.
The world's first MRI-compatible surgical robot, unveiled today, is the creation of neurosurgeon Dr. Garnette Sutherland and his team. Dr. Sutherland has spent the last six years leading a team of Canadian scientists, in cooperation with MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (MDA), to design a machine "that represents a milestone in medical technology."
"Many of our microsurgical techniques evolved in the 1960s, and have pushed surgeons to the limits of their precision, accuracy, dexterity and stamina," says Dr. Sutherland, professor of neurosurgery, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine and the Calgary Health Region. "NeuroArm dramatically enhances the spatial resolution at which surgeons operate, and shifts surgery from the organ towards the cell level."
Designed to be controlled by a surgeon from a computer workstation, neuroArm operates in conjunction with real-time MR imaging, providing surgeons unprecedented detail and control, enabling them to manipulate tools at a microscopic scale. Advanced surgical testing of neuroArm is currently underway, followed by the first patient, anticipated for this summer.
"The launch of neuroArm places the U of C and the Calgary Health Region at the forefront of the emerging field of biomedical engineering, and establishes Canada's leadership role in image-guided robotic surgery," says U of C President Harvey Weingarten, PhD.
"The Calgary Health Region considers the introduction of the neuroArm an historic moment in our ability to provide unprecedented care and safety to patients in Alberta," says the Calgary Health Region's Chief Executive Officer and President Jack Davis. "We are extremely proud to be a partner in neuroArm and to have worked with such a dedicated team of individuals and funding partners."
NeuroArm, one of the most advanced robotic systems ever developed, was designed and built in collaboration with MDA, known for creating Canadarm and Canadarm2. Bringing neuroArm to life required a unique partnership between medicine, engineering, physics, and education; some of Calgary's most visionary philanthropists; the high-tech sector, and numerous government agencies and research funding organizations. "This unprecedented collaboration is a direct result of Calgary's optimistic and entrepreneurial community spirit," says Dr. Sutherland. "It's no accident a project like this is coming out of Calgary. Our community believes in innovation and supporting challenging projects."
"This is truly a flagship program for the University of Calgary and all the partner agencies involved," says Weingarten. "Visioning and building neuroArm required unprecedented collaboration between numerous government departments, funding agencies and the private sector. Making this a reality will have impacts and benefits we can't even anticipate as Calgary and Canada become known as world leaders in the field of robotic surgery."
The project began in 2001 when the namesakes of the Seaman Family MR Research Centre, Calgary philanthropists, oilpatch pioneers and brothers Doc, B.J. and Don Seaman provided $2 million to begin planning neuroArm. Their contribution was a natural extension of their support for the research centre that began with the development of the world's first intraoperative MRI scanner based on a movable high-field magnet.
"As engineers, the technology involved in neuroArm intrigued us from the start. We really understood the challenges and appreciated the brilliance that had to go into it," Doc Seaman says. The family realized that a project like neuroArm would place Calgary on the leading-edge of surgery worldwide.
"The best surgeons in the world can work within an eighth of an inch. NeuroArm makes it possible for surgeons to work accurately within the width of a hair," Doc Seaman says. "This will put us on the world stage and will help attract more top people in medicine and surgery, which will benefit the university and the community as a whole."
"This is a shining example of Canadian science making breakthroughs that will improve quality of life for people in Canada and around the globe," says President and CEO of the Canada Foundation for Innovation Dr. Eliot Phillipson. "This world-class project will further develop Canada's international reputation as a place where outstanding research is being conducted."
"Our mission is to be a leader in health and a partner in care. Patient care and safety are always our number one priority," says Davis. "We are thrilled that the neuroArm will improve recovery and wait times for patients, and most of all, improve their quality of life following surgery so they can get back to daily life activities."
The Seaman family's donation, combined with funding from Western Economic Diversification Canada, allowed for detailed planning and design of the project. That set the stage for substantial support from the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the National Research Council of Canada, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research and additional philanthropists to build the one-of-a-kind machine and create a comprehensive medical robotics program.
A global search for robotics expertise led Sutherland to MDA, a perfect fit for neuroArm because of the company's background in creating specialized space robots, used aboard NASA space shuttles and the International Space Station.
"NeuroArm is a great fit for us, allowing us to apply our world-renowned space solutions to medical applications that will benefit patients here on Earth," says Bruce Mack, vice-president of development programs of MDA's Brampton operations. "The combination of our remote operation and sensory information expertise, coupled with our manipulation technologies, will enable improved decision making and performance in the operating theatre."
Developing neuroArm required an international collaboration of health professionals, physicists, electrical, software, optical and mechanical engineers to build a robot capable of operating safely in a surgical suite and within the strong magnetic field of the intraoperative MRI environment.
"Building a robot is complex to begin with. Adding the constraints of operating in a sterile operating room, within an MRI machine and alongside the other people involved in surgery makes it a very complex environment," says the project's robotics engineer Alex Greer. By acquiring first-hand knowledge of the demands in the operating room, Greer and Paul McBeth, the first U of C neuroArm robotics engineer, acted as the bridge between the physicians, scientists and engineers involved in the project.
"Doctors and engineers are good at what they do but they speak different languages," Greer says. "Translating surgical requirements into technical terms can be a challenge." When the project began, engineers from MDA traveled to Calgary and worked with surgeons for several weeks to define the requirements necessary for the successful design of neuroArm.
Sutherland's team is developing specialized training programs in partnership with the Calgary Health Region, and U of C's faculties of medicine and education to train surgeons in the use of neuroArm. Many other surgical disciplines have and continue to participate in applying neuroArm to various types of surgical procedures.
"We're not just building a robot, we're building a medical robotics program," Dr. Sutherland says. "We want the neuroArm technology to be translated into the global community, i.e. hospitals around the world," he says. "To accomplish this, we will need our students and young professionals because they're the powerhouse when it comes to embracing new technology and applying it to clinical care."
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