Public Release: 

Anti-inflammatory drugs interact with HRT, and more

PLOS

Interaction of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Hormone Replacement Therapy

Any cardio protective effect of hormone replacement therapy may be inhibited if women are taking a particular type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory pain killer, report researchers led by Garret FitzGerald from University of Pennsylvania in a paper published this week in PLoS Medicine.. The researchers examined the medical records of 1,673 women aged between 50 and 84 years from the UK's General Practice Research Database who had heart attacks or who died from coronary heart disease and compared them with 7,005 control women. Current use of hormone replacement therapy was associated with a significantly lower risk of heart attack than non-use; with an odds ratio of 0.78. However, in women who used traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, which variably inhibit both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2, at the same time as hormone replacement therapy, the chance of heart attack among this group o f women, as compared to nonusers of these NSAIDs and hormone replacement therapy, was 1.5, which was not significantly different.

There is conflicting evidence from previous work about whether hormone replacement therapy protects against heart disease in women. In addition, any beneficial effect of hormone replacement therapy on the heart might be counteracted by NSAIDs which inhibit COX-2. Inhibition of COX-2 prevents production of prostacyclin, which has a role in preventing blood clotting. As estrogen acts to increase production of prostacyclin; it is possible that the effect of hormone replacement therapy on the heart is counteracted by these NSAIDs.

The authors conclude that "these observations, based on small numbers, are provocative rather than conclusive and are not intended to guide clinical practice, but rather to prompt additional research." Ultimately determination of the clinical implications of these findings will need to be addressed in future trials.

Citation: Garcia Rodrıguez LA, Egan K, FitzGerald GA (2007) Traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and postmenopausal hormone therapy: A drug-drug interaction" PLoS Med 4(5): e157. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040157

PLEASE ADD THE LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0040157

PRESS-ONLY PREVIEW OF THE ARTICLE: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-04-05-fitzgerald.pdf

CONTACT:
Dr. Garret A FitzGerald
University of Pennsylvania
Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics
153 Johnson Pavilion
3620 Hamilton Walk
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6084
United States of America
+1 215 898-1185
+1 215 573-9135 (fax)
garret@spirit.gcrc.upenn.edu


Understanding the Slow Depletion of Memory CD4+ T Cells in HIV Infection

Using a simple mathematical model, Andrew Yates and colleagues show that a runaway cycle of T cell activation and infection cannot explain the slow rate of CD4 decline during chronic HIV infection. A related perspective by Rob de Boer discusses the study

Citation: Yates A, Stark J, Klein N, Antia R, Callard R (2007) Understanding the slow depletion of memory CD4þ T cells in HIV infection. PLoS Med 4(5): e177. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040177

PLEASE ADD THE LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0040177

PRESS-ONLY PREVIEW OF THE ARTICLE: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-04-05-yates.pdf

Related image for press use: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-04-05-yates.jpg
- Caption: Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 budding from cultured lymphocyte. Multiple round bumps on cell surface represent sites of assembly and budding of virions. Credit: C. Goldsmith/CDC

CONTACT:
Andrew Yates
Emory University
Department of Biology
1510 Clifton Road
Atlanta, GA 30322
United States of America
+1 404 727 1765
ayates2@emory.edu

Related PLoS Medicine Perspective article:

Citation: De Boer RJ (2007) Time scales of CD4+ T cell depletion in HIV infection. PLoS Med 4(5): e193. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040193

PLEASE ADD THE LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0040193

PRESS-ONLY PREVIEW OF THE ARTICLE: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-04-05-de-boer.pdf

Related image for press use: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-04-05-de-boer.jpg
Caption: HIV micrograph

CONTACT:
Rob de Boer
Utrecht University
Biology/Theoretical Biology
Utrecht, 3584CH
The Netherlands
+31 30 253-7560
+31 30 251-3655 (fax)
r.j.deboer@bio.uu.nl


Hyperoxic Brain Effects Are Normalized by Addition of CO2

Hyperoxic ventilation leads to responses in brain areas that modify hypothalamus-mediated sympathetic and hormonal outflow; these responses can be diminished by addition of CO2 to the gas mixture.

Citation: Macey PM, Woo MA, Harper RM (2007) Hyperoxic brain effects are normalized by addition of CO2. PLoS Med 4(5): e173. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040173

PLEASE ADD THE LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0040173

PRESS-ONLY PREVIEW OF THE ARTICLE: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-04-05-harper.pdf

Related image for press use: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-04-05-harper.jpg
Caption: Brain regions responding to hyperoxia during a 2 minute period

CONTACT:
Ronald Harper
University California Los Angeles
Neurobiology
10833 Le Conte Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1763
United States of America
+1 310-825-5303
+1 310-825-2224 (fax)
rharper@ucla.edu


Vaccinating to Protect a Vulnerable Subpopulation

Jonathan Dushoff and colleagues model the benefits of different vaccination strategies and suggest that small differences in how populations mix can change the best vaccination strategy from one focused on the most vulnerable individuals to one focused on the most transmissive individuals.

Citation: Dushoff J, Plotkin JB, Viboud C, Simonsen L, Miller M, et al. (2007) Vaccinating to protect a vulnerable subpopulation. PLoS Med 4(5): e174. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040174

PLEASE ADD THE LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0040174

PRESS-ONLY PREVIEW OF THE ARTICLE: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-04-05-dushoff.pdf

CONTACT:
Jonathan Dushoff
Princeton University
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Guyot Hall
Princeton, NJ 08544
United States of America
+1 609-258-6882
+1 609-258-1334 (fax)
dushoff@eno.princeton.edu

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