Children are able to solve approximate addition or subtraction problems involving large numbers even before they have been taught arithmetic, according to a study conducted by researchers from The University of Nottingham and Harvard University.
The study, published in the journal Nature and undertaken at Harvard University, suggests that children do not need to master either the logic of place value or the addition table in order to perform approximate addition and subtraction.
Children's difficulty with learning school arithmetic may stem from the need to produce an exact number when solving problems. Elementary education in mathematics might be improved -- and children's interest in the subject enhanced -- if children's talent for approximate calculation could be built upon in the classroom, the authors suggest.
Researchers presented five-year-old children with a series of illustrated problems, in the form of scenarios that involved the approximate addition and subtraction of symbolic numbers between five and 98. A subtraction question, for example, stated: "Sarah has 64 sweets and gives 13 of them away, and John has 34 sweets. Who has more""
Even though the children had not yet been taught about symbolic arithmetic, and were yet to master the mechanics of symbolic addition and subtraction, they performed well above chance on the tests and without resorting to guessing. The children's inability to provide an exact solution to the problems showed that their approximate performance was not dependent on precise knowledge of the numbers.
The authors -- lead researcher Dr Camilla Gilmore, now at the University of Nottingham, with Professor Elizabeth Spelke, the Marshall L. Berkman Professor of Psychology and Shannon McCarthy, a research assistant in the department of psychology, both in the department of psychology at Harvard -- found evidence for these abilities in children from a broad range of backgrounds, when studies were conducted in both a quiet 'laboratory' setting and in the classroom.
The study also assessed whether children used their non-symbolic number sense in order to perform the approximate addition and subtraction. Adults, children and even infants are sensitive to number in arrays of dots and sequences of sounds.
These number representations display characteristic limitations: arrays of dots can be numerically compared, added, or subtracted only approximately, subtraction is less precise than addition, and numerical comparison becomes more difficult when the ratio of the two numbers involved in the problem approaches one. The children involved in the study displayed these same characteristics with regard to the symbolic addition and subtraction problems.
The authors suggest their findings may be useful for the teaching of elementary mathematics.
Dr Gilmore, who is a research fellow based in The University of Nottingham's Learning Sciences Research Institute (LSRI), said: "Exact symbolic arithmetic takes years to learn and poses difficulties for many children.
"For this reason, teachers were concerned that our problems would frustrate the children, and they were amazed at the children's success and engagement. Our findings suggest new possible strategies for teaching primary mathematics and making it fun."
Professor Spelke said: "We've known for some time that adults, children, and even infants and non-human animals have a sense of number. We were surprised to see, however, that children spontaneously use their number sense when they're presented with problems in symbolic arithmetic.
"These children haven't begun to be taught place value or exact addition facts. Nevertheless, their natural sense of number gives them a way to think about arithmetic."
The full paper will be published online on May 30, at www.nature.com/nature. The study was funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation.
Notes to editors: The University of Nottingham is Britain's University of the Year (The Times Higher Awards 2006). It undertakes world-changing research, provides innovative teaching and a student experience of the highest quality. Ranked by Newsweek in the world's Top 75 universities, its academics have won two Nobel Prizes since 2003. The University is an international institution with campuses in the United Kingdom, Malaysia and China.
The LSRI at The University of Nottingham has more than 40 staff involved in studies of all the complex processes involved in human learning, with a particular focus on how new and emerging technologies can be used to enhance learning. The Institute brings together expertise from staff in the School of Computer Science and IT, the School of Education and the School of Psychology.
More information is available from Dr Camilla Gilmore, University of Nottingham, who is contactable through Media Relations Manager Tim Utton in the University's Media and Public Relations Office on +44 (0)115 846 8092, firstname.lastname@example.org, Media Relations Manager Lindsay Brooke, on +44 (0)115 951 5793, Lindsay.email@example.com; or Amy Lavoie, Harvard University, +1 617 496 9982, firstname.lastname@example.org