Public Release: 

Teaching adolescents about condoms

PLOS

Teaching adolescents to use condoms when abstinence fails is a reasonable strategy for preventing HIV, according to a new research study in PLoS Medicine.

This finding might appear common sense, but the best way to teach HIV prevention to young people has in fact has been controversial. The "abstinence-only" approach, favored in recent years by US government-sponsored programs, reflects the notion that teaching adolescents anything about safer sex (including condom use) might encourage risky activity. However, recent studies have found that abstinence-only programs have failed to reduce HIV risk.

Do "abstinence-plus" programs, which present safer sex as an option when abstinence fails, reduce risk or just confuse the issue"

To answer this question, Kristen Underhill and colleagues screened over 20,000 research reports to identify 39 studies of abstinence-plus programs including more than 37,000 North American youth, typically in schools, community facilities, and healthcare settings. They found that 23 of these reports showed a beneficial effect on at least one sexual behavior reported by the participating adolescents, including increased abstinence, more condom use, and less unprotected sex. No report found that participants who were taught "abstinence plus" increased their risk by starting to have sex at an earlier age, or by decreasing their condom use when they did have sex. The study also found limited evidence that some abstinence-plus programs can reduce pregnancy rates among teenage girls.

Overall, the study suggests that abstinence-plus approaches do not undermine program messages encouraging abstinence, nor do they undermine program messages encouraging safer sex.

In a commentary accompanying the research article, HIV prevention researchers Shari L. Dworkin and John Santelli point out that abstinence-plus programs have been excluded from US funding allocated for abstinence-based programs. They note that US government promotion of abstinence-only programs has created disarray in efforts to prevent HIV in developing countries.

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Citation: Underhill K, Operario D, Montgomery P (2007) Systematic review of abstinence-plus HIV prevention programs in high-income countries. PLoS Med 4(9): e275.doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040275

IN YOUR ARTICLE, PLEASE LINK TO THIS URL, WHICH WILL PROVIDE ACCESS TO THE PUBLISHED PAPER: http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0040275

PRESS-ONLY PREVIEW OF THE ARTICLE: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-04-09-Underhill.pdf

CONTACT:
Dr. Kristen Underhill
University of Oxford
Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention
Barnett House
32 Wellington Square
Oxford, Oxon OX1 2ER
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1865 280325
Fax: +44 1865 270324
e-mail: kristen.underhill@socres.ox.ac.uk

Related PLoS Medicine Perspective:

Citation: Dworkin SL, Santelli J (2007) Do abstinence-plus interventions reduce sexual risk behavior among youth? PLoS Med 4(9): e276. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040276

IN YOUR ARTICLE, PLEASE LINK TO THIS URL, WHICH WILL PROVIDE ACCESS TO THE PUBLISHED PAPER: http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0040276

PRESS-ONLY PREVIEW OF THE ARTICLE: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-04-09-dworkin.pdf

CONTACT:
Shari L. Dworkin
Columbia University New York State Psychiatric Institute
HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies
1051 Riverside Drive
New York, NY 10032
United States of America
Tel: +1 212 543 6651
e-mail: sld2011@columbia.edu

About PLoS Medicine

PLoS Medicine is an open access, freely available international medical journal. It publishes original research that enhances our understanding of human health and disease, together with commentary and analysis of important global health issues. For more information, visit http://www.plosmedicine.org

About the Public Library of Science

The Public Library of Science (PLoS) is a non-profit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. For more information, visit http://www.plos.org

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