WHAT: New research from University of Rhode Island presented at The Obesity Society's 2009 Annual Scientific Meeting shows the role of chewing sugar-free gum, such as Wrigley's Extra®, in helping to reduce calorie intake at lunchi and increase energy expenditure among individuals in a laboratory setting.ii Primary outcomes include:
- After subjects chewed gum in the morning, their calorie intake at lunch was decreased by 68 calories.
- Despite consuming fewer calories at lunch, participants did not report greater hunger and did not compensate by increasing their calorie intake later in the day.
- When participants chewed gum, they reported feeling less hungry, as compared to when they did not chew gum.
- When subjects chewed gum with a relaxed, natural pace before and after eating, their energy expenditure increased.
- When participants chewed gum before eating, their energy expenditure was higher by approximately 5%, as compared to when they did not chew gum.
- When participants chewed gum after eating, their energy expenditure was also higher by approximately 5%, as compared to when they did not chew gum.
- Furthermore, with gum chewing, subjects reported reduced weariness and less perceived effort to do things, as compared to when they did not chew gum.
Overall, this study demonstrates the effects of chewing sugar-free gum on meal intake and energy expenditure, such that over a half-day about 62 kilocalories could be 'saved' by a total of one hour of relaxed gum chewing compared to not chewing gum. It also contributes to a growing body of evidence in these two areas. Three previous studies have reported that chewing gum before snacking can help reduce hunger, diminish cravings and decrease snack intake.iii,iv,v And, nutritionists report that even small changes in caloric intake can have a significant impact in the long term. In addition, a previous study has demonstrated increased energy expenditure when chewing gum.vi
A research summary with additional information on methodology is available upon request.
WHO: Kathleen J. Melanson, Ph.D., R.D., Associate Professor of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Rhode Island, led the research study and is available for interviews to discuss the potential role of chewing gum on appetite control, meal intake and calorie expenditure.
Gilbert Leveille, Ph.D., Executive Director, Wrigley Science Institute™, will also be available to discuss study findings and research on the Benefits of Chewing™ gum related to weight management and other areas including oral health, stress relief, and focus, alertness and concentration.
WHEN: Research will be presented at The Obesity Society's 2009 Annual Scientific Meeting from noon--1:00 p.m. EST and 5:30--6:30 p.m. EST on Monday, October 26 and Tuesday, October 27; Washington Marriott Wardman Park, Washington, D.C.
WRIGLEY SCIENCE INSTITUTE™:
Wrigley is committed to advancing and sharing scientific research that explores the benefits of chewing gum. The Wrigley Science Institute works with independent researchers at leading institutions around the world to learn more about the potential health and wellness benefits of chewing gum. The current work of the Wrigley Science Institute is focused on exploring the impact of chewing gum in four key scientific areas: oral health; stress relief; focus, alertness and concentration; and weight management. More information may be found at www.wrigley.com.
The study was supported by an unrestricted research grant from the Wrigley Science Institute™ presented during the 2007 Annual Meeting of The Obesity Society.
© 2009 Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company. All Rights Reserved. Extra, Benefits of Chewing and Wrigley Science Institute are registered trademarks of the Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company.
iKathleen J. Melanson, Kaitlyn E. Reti, and Daniel L. Kresge. Impact of chewing gum on appetite, meal intake, and mood under controlled conditions. Obesity 2009. Washington, D.C. October 2009.
iiDaniel L. Kresge, Kaitlyn E. Reti and Kathleen J. Melanson. Relationships between gum chewing, energy expenditure and RQ before and after controlled breakfasts. Obesity 2009. Washington, D.C. October 2009.
iiiHetherington MM, Boyland E. "Short term effects of chewing gum on snack intake and appetite." Appetite. 2007; 48(3):397-401.
ivHetherington MM, Regan MF. "Effect of chewing gum on short-term appetite control and reduced snack intake in moderately restrained eaters." Obesity. 2007; 15: 510-P.
vPaula J. Geiselman, Corby Martin, Sandra Coulon, Donna Ryan, and Megan Apperson. Effects of chewing gum on specific macronutrient and total caloric intake in an afternoon snack. FASEB J. 2009 23:101.3.
viLevine J, Baukol P, Pavlidis I. "The energy expended in chewing gum." New England Journal of Medicine. 1999; l 341(27): 2100.