Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not a generally accepted option for infants or toddlers with acute coronary syndrome. However, a new report published in the August issue of Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, a journal of The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI), found coronary stent implantation to be a feasible and safe palliative option for children fifteen months and younger.
Studies have shown that in adults with reduced blood flow to the heart--known as acute coronary syndrome (ACS)--stent implantation significantly reduces mortality. While ACS is less common in children there are congenital and acquired heart disease that may compromise coronary circulation in the pediatric population. Due to increased risk of coronary interventions and difficulty of cardiac catheterization techniques in pediatric patients, PCI is not a recommended treatment strategy in this age group.
A research team led by Dr. András Bratincsák from Rady Children's Hospital in San Diego, California, conducted a retrospective review of seven children who had PCI between June 2006 and June 2010. Of those included in the study all were under 18 years of age and four were 15 months or younger. PCI techniques included balloon coronary angioplasty and coronary stent implantation. Researchers analyzed patient data that included underlying diagnosis, comorbidites, catheterization technique, and outcomes.
In all seven cases, successful stent placement in the proximal portion of the left or right coronary arteries with excellent revascularization was achieved. The average diameter of the heart arteries was 0.65 mm prior to the intervention. Balloon angioplasty did not completely resolve the stenosis and bare metal stents were then implanted to a mean internal diameter of 2.5 mm. The team determined that the average intervention-free period was 434 days after stent implantation. Restenosis and thrombosis did not occur in cases where the implanted stent diameter was greater than 2.5 mm and patients received dual anti-platelet therapy.
"We provide evidence that stent implantation is a relatively safe option for pediatric patients with coronary stenosis, including those under the age of 15 months," said Dr. Bratincsák. "PCI offers a viable strategy for bridging infants and toddlers with blocked arteries or poor ventricular function to surgical revascularization or transplantation when they are at an older age."
This study is published in Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions. Media wishing to receive a PDF of the article may contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full citation: "Percutaneous Stent Implantation into Coronary Arteries in Infants." Andras Bratincsa, Anas Salkini, Howaida G. El-Said and John W. Moore. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions; Published Online: August 22, 2011 (DOI: 10.1002/ccd.23173); Print Issue Date: August 2011. http://doi.
Author Contact: Michelle Ogata with Rady Children's Hospital at email@example.com or 858-966-5855.
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions is the official journal of The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. This international journal covers the broad field of cardiovascular diseases. Subject material includes basic and clinical information that is derived from or related to invasive and interventional coronary or peripheral vascular techniques. The journal focuses on material that will be of immediate practical value to physicians providing patient care in the clinical laboratory setting. To accomplish this, the journal publishes Preliminary Reports and Work In Progress articles that complement the traditional Original Studies, Case Reports, and Comprehensive Reviews. Perspective and insight concerning controversial subjects and evolving technologies are provided regularly through Editorial Commentaries furnished by members of the Editorial Board and other experts. Articles are subject to double-blind peer review and complete editorial evaluation prior to any decision regarding acceptability. For more information, please visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1522-726X.
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