Park Ridge, Ill. (August 1, 2012) - New research from Cornell University indicates that pregnant women who increase choline intake in the third trimester of pregnancy may reduce the risk of the baby developing metabolic and chronic stress-related diseases like high blood pressure and diabetes later in life.(i) The results, published in the latest edition of the Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, suggest that choline, a nutrient found in high quantities in eggs, may help protect against the effects of a mother's stress during pregnancy. Previous research indicates high exposure to the stress hormone cortisol during pregnancy, often due to maternal anxiety or depression, may make offspring vulnerable to stress-induced illness and chronic conditions.(ii, iii) This finding adds to the growing body of evidence demonstrating the importance of choline in fetal development.
A Closer Look at the Study
Twenty-four women in the third trimester of pregnancy were randomly assigned to consume either 480 milligrams (mg) choline per day or 930 mg per day for 12 weeks prior to delivery. Researchers collected maternal and placental blood samples as well as samples of placental tissue. They then compared cortisol levels and genetic differences among all the samples. The researchers observed lower levels of cortisol in the placental cord and changes in cortisol-regulating genes in both the placental and fetal tissue among women in the higher choline intake group. "The study findings raise the exciting possibility that a higher maternal choline intake may counter some of the adverse effects of prenatal stress on behavioral, neuroendocrine, and metabolic development in the offspring," says Marie Caudill, PhD, Cornell University, who is an author of the study and a leading choline researcher.
Choline: A Vital Nutrient
Choline is especially important for pregnant women - it has been shown to play an important role in fetal and infant brain development, affecting the areas of the brain responsible for memory and life-long learning ability. In addition, research shows women with diets low in choline have four times greater risk of having babies with neural tube defects, such as spina bifida.(iv)
Emerging research also shows choline may have additional benefits in other areas, including:
- Breast cancer prevention: A study funded by the National Institutes of Health concluded that dietary choline is associated with a 24 percent reduced risk of breast cancer.(v)
- Anti-inflammatory: Foods rich in choline may help reduce the risk of inflammation associated with chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, bone loss, dementia and Alzheimer's disease.(vi)
- Brain function: Choline also promotes adult brain function by preserving the structure of brain cell membranes and is an essential component of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter involved in memory function and muscle control.(vii)
The Incredible Excellent Source of Choline
Despite its important role in the body, only one in 10 Americans is meeting the Adequate Intake (AI) guidelines for choline.(viii) Eggs are an excellent source of choline, containing 125 mg per egg. Neva Cochran, registered dietitian and nutrition communications consultant, explains that the nutritional benefits of eggs are not merely limited to choline. "Not only are eggs an excellent source of choline, they contain many other nutrients pregnant women need most, such as high-quality protein, iron and folate--all for just about 15 cents apiece," says Cochran. In order to get adequate amounts of choline, Cochran suggests the following tips:
- Find it in Food: A great way to get your daily dose of choline is to include choline-rich foods in the diet, such as eggs, lean beef, cauliflower and peanuts. Also keep in mind most multivitamins, even prenatal vitamins, provide far less than the Adequate Intake for choline.
- Don't Skip the Yolk: Choline is found exclusively in the egg yolk, not the white. Nearly half of the protein and most of the vitamins and minerals are also contained in the yolk.
About the American Egg Board (AEB)
AEB is the U.S. egg producer's link to the consumer in communicating the value of The incredible edible egg™ and is funded from a national legislative checkoff on all egg production from companies with greater than 75,000 layers, in the continental United States. The board consists of 18 members and 18 alternates from all regions of the country who are appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture. The AEB staff carries out the programs under the board direction. AEB is located in Park Ridge, Ill. Visit www.IncredibleEgg.org for more information.
About the Egg Nutrition Center (ENC)
The Egg Nutrition Center (ENC) is the health education and research center of the American Egg Board. Established in 1979, ENC provides science-based information to health promotion agencies, physicians, dietitians, nutritional scientists, media and consumers on issues related to egg nutrition and the role of eggs in the American diet. ENC is located in Park Ridge, IL. Visit www.eggnutritioncenter.org or www.nutritionunscrambled.com for more information.
i Jiang, X., J. Yan, A. A. West, C. A. Perry, O. V. Malysheva, S. Devapatla, E. Pressman, F. Vermeylen, and M. A. Caudill. Maternal choline intake alters the epigenetic state of fetal cortisol-regulating genes in humans. FASEB J. 2012;26:3563-3574.
ii Levitt, N. S., Lindsay, R. S., Holmes, M. C., and Seckl, J. R. Dexamethasone in the last week of pregnancy attenuates hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene expression and elevates blood pressure in the adult offspring in the rat. Neuroendocrinology. 1996;64:412.
iii Levitt, N. S., Lambert, E. V., Woods, D., Hales, C. N., Andrew, R., and Seckl, J. R. Impaired glucose tolerance and elevated blood pressure in low birth weight, nonobese, young South African adults: early programming of cortisol axis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:4611.
iv Shaw GM, et al. Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160:102-9.
v Xu X, et al. Choline metabolism and risk of breast cancer in population-based study. FASEB J. 2008; 22:1-8. vi Cho E, et al. Dietary choline and betaine assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma total homocysteine concentration in the Framingham Offspring Study. AJCN. 2006;83:905-11.
vi Cho E, et al. Dietary choline and betaine assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma total homocysteine concentration in the Framingham Offspring Study. AJCN. 2006;83:905-11.
vii Moeller SM, et al. The Potential Role of Dietary Xanthophylls in Cataract and Age-Related Macular Degeneration. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(5):522S-527S.
viii Jensen HH, et al. Choline in the diets of the US population: NHANES, 2003-2004. Abstract presented at Experimental Biology 2007.