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JCI early table of contents for Nov. 1, 2013

JCI Journals

Liver tropism is key for B cell deletion immunotherapy

Antibodies against the B cell surface protein CD20 have been used successfully to treat B cell-mediated autoimmune diseases and lymphomas. Antibody binding receptors, called Fc receptors, on other immune cells bind anti-CD20 on coated B cells, which induces B cell deletion through a mechanism that is not clearly understood. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Philippe Bousse and colleagues at the Pasteur Institute in Paris described the fate of B cells in live mice after treatment with anti-CD20 antibodies. Bousse and his group found that B cells circulating through the liver were the first ones depleted after treatment and that B cells in circulation were more susceptible to deletion than those stationary in the spleen or lymph nodes. The researchers used intravital two-photon microscopy to follow B cells in the liver as they halted near specialized Fc receptor-bearing cells called Kupffer cells. The Kupffer cells bound and consumed the anti-CD20-coated B cells. The study assigns a vital role to liver Kupffer cells in deleting B cells and describes techniques that may be used to improve the effectiveness of anti-CD20 therapy

TITLE: The mechanism of anti-CD20-mediated B cell depletion revealed by intravital imaging

AUTHOR CONTACT: Philippe Bousso
Institut Pasteur, Paris, , FRA
Phone: 33 1 45 68 85 51; Fax: ; E-mail:

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Dysfunctional chemokine receptor promotes candidiasis

Candida albicans is one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections in immune compromised patients. The risk of both developing candidiasis and the clinical outcome of infection is variable among patients, and the host-dependent factors that contribute to patient susceptibility to C. albicans infection are poorly understood. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Michail Lionakis and colleagues at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases demonstrated that the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 is required for the interaction of C. albicans and macrophages in the kidney. Mice lacking this receptor were prone to C. albicans-induced kidney failure; however, these mice did not have increased fungal burden in other organs. Furthermore, the authors found that patients with a mutation in the gene encoding CX3CR1 were at higher risk of candidiasis. This study identifies an important role for the interaction of C. albicans and macrophages in disease progression and outcome.

TITLE: CX3CR1-dependent renal macrophage survival promotes Candida control and host survival

AUTHOR CONTACT: Michail Lionakis
NIAID NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
Phone: 301-443-5089; Fax: 301-480-5787; E-mail:

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TITLE: Retinoblastoma protein prevents enteric nervous system defects and intestinal pseudo-obstruction

AUTHOR CONTACT: Robert Heuckeroth
The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Phone: 215-590-1209; E-mail:

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TITLE: Transmembrane protein ESDN promotes endothelial VEGF signaling and regulates angiogenesis

AUTHOR CONTACT: Mehran Sadeghi
Yale University, West Haven, CT, USA
Phone: 203-932 5711 x3398; E-mail:

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TITLE: Apelin is a positive regulator of ACE2 in failing hearts

Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita, , JPN
Phone: +81-18-884-6067; Fax: ; E-mail:

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TITLE: Serotonin 2C receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate energy and glucose homeostasis

AUTHOR CONTACT: Joel K. Elmquist
UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
Phone: 214 648 2911; Fax: 214 648 5612; E-mail:

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TITLE: Enhanced autophagy ameliorates cardiac proteinopathy

AUTHOR CONTACT: Jeffrey Robbins
Cincinnati Childrens Hosp, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Phone: 5136368098; Fax: 5136385859; E-mail:

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TITLE: Insulin receptor substrate signaling suppresses neonatal autophagy in the heart

University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Phone: 801 585-0727; Fax: 801 585-0701; E-mail:

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