Stretches of DNA called retrotransposons, often dubbed "junk DNA", might play an important role in schizophrenia. In a study published today in the journal Neuron, a Japanese team revealed that LINE-1 retrotransposons are abnormally abundant in the schizophrenia brain, modify the expression of genes related to schizophrenia during brain development, and may be one of the causes of schizophrenia.
Retrotransposons are short sequences of DNA that autonomously amplify and move around the genome. One class of retrotransposons named Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINE) make up a large part of the eukaryotic genome and it is believed that they may contribute to a number of disorders and diseases such as cancer.
LINE-1 have been shown to be more abundant in brain cells than in other cells in the body in adults, providing evidence for enhanced activity of LINE-1 in the human brain. However, the role played by LINE-1 in mental disorders, and in particular schizophrenia, has remained unclear.
The team led by Dr Kazuya Iwamoto from the University of Tokyo and Dr Tadafumi Kato from the RIKEN Brain Science Institute demonstrated that the number of LINE-1 copies is elevated in the post-mortem brains of patients with schizophrenia. They show using mouse and macaque models for schizophrenia and iPS cells that exposure to environmental risk factors during development, as well as the presence of genetic risk factors for schizophrenia, can lead to increased levels of LINE-1 in neurons. The authors reveal employing whole genome analysis that in schizophrenia patients LINE-1 reinserts into genes involved in synaptic function or schizophrenia and may result in disruptions in their normal functions.
"Our findings strongly suggest that abnormal, enhanced retrotransposition of LINE-1 in neurons, triggered by environmental factors and/or combined with a genetic risk factor, plays a defining role in schizophrenia," conclude the authors.
"This study proposes a brand new mechanism of pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previously, schizophrenia was regarded as a disease caused by gene-environment interactions, but our study shows that the environment can alter the genome and may contribute to the disease," explains Tadafumi Kato.
For more information about this study or interviews please contact Dr. Tadafumi Kato directly by phone or by email at:
Tel: +81-(0)48-467-6949 Mobile phone: +81-(0)80-1217-7768
Dr. Kazuya Iwamoto is also available for interviews in English by phone or by email at:
The University of Tokyo Hospital
Miki Bundo1, Manabu Toyoshima2, Yohei Okada3, Wado Akamatsu3, Junko Ueda2, Taeko Nemoto-Miyauchi2, Fumiko Sunaga1, Michihiro Toritsuka4, Daisuke Ikawa4, Akiyoshi Kakita5, Motoichiro Kato3, Kiyoto Kasai1, Toshifumi Kishimoto4, Hiroyuki Nawa5, Hideyuki Okano3, Takeo Yoshikawa2, Tadafumi Kato2,* Kazuya Iwamoto1* (* co-corresponding authors)
"Increased L1 Retrotransposition in the Neuronal Genome in Schizophrenia" Neuron, 2013 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2013.10.053
1The University of Tokyo, 2RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 3Keio University, 4Nara Medical University, 5University of Niigata
This study was carried out by The University of Tokyo and RIKEN Brain Science Institute in collaboration with Keio University, University of Niigata, and Nara Medical University. This study is funded in part by a grant from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan, JST PRESTO/ CREST, and Strategic Research Program for Brain Sciences by MEXT.
RIKEN is Japan's largest research institute for basic and applied research. Over 2500 papers by RIKEN researchers are published every year in leading scientific and technology journals covering a broad spectrum of disciplines including physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, and medical science. RIKEN's research environment and strong emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration and globalization has earned a worldwide reputation for scientific excellence.
About the RIKEN Brain Science Institute
The RIKEN Brain Science Institute (BSI) performs cutting-edge neuroscience research in the service of society and has earned an international reputation as an innovative center for research and training. Researchers at BSI seek to understand brain functions from molecules to neural circuits to cognition, using methods drawn from a wide range of disciplines. BSI is also leading efforts to provide career development for researchers in Japan and around the world.