Paleolithic inhabitants of modern-day Spain may have eaten snails 10,000 years earlier than their Mediterranean neighbors, according to a study published August 20, 2014 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Javier Fernández-López de Pablo from Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social and colleagues.
Snails were widespread in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, but it is still unknown when and how they were incorporated into human diets. The authors of this study found land snail shell remains from ~30,000 years ago at a recently discovered site in Cova de la Barriada, Spain. To better understand if the inhabitants may have eaten snails, the researchers investigated patterns of land snail selection, consumption, and accumulation at the site, and then analyzed the shells' decay, fossilization process, composition, and age at death by measuring the shell size.
Scientists found groupings of complete shells from a large land snail species at three areas of the site, corresponding to different time points ~30,000 years ago. The adult snails were close to prehistoric human-constructed structures that may have been used to cook the snails, along with stone tools, and other animal remains that were likely roasted in ambers of pine and juniper at 375 C. The authors posit that these results point to previously undiscovered patterns of invertebrate use and may highlight a broadening of the human diet in the Upper Paleolithic in the Mediterranean basin. In neighboring Mediterranean areas, eating land snails didn't appear until about 10,000 years later, which may make these newly found snail shells the oldest known evidence that ancient human populations used them as a food resource in Europe ~30,000 years ago.
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Citation: Fernández-López de Pablo J, Badal E, Ferrer Garcıa C, Martínez-Ortí A, Sanchis Serra A (2014) Land Snails as a Diet Diversification Proxy during the Early Upper Palaeolithic in Europe. PLoS ONE 9(8): e104898. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104898
Funding: The fieldwork research and the radiocarbon analyses were supported by private funds provided by the Fundación Adendia in the framework of the research project named "El Poblamiento inicial de Benidorm y la Marina Baixa (Alicante)". JFL is supported by a Ramón y Cajal program postdoctoral research grant (Ref. RYC-2011-09363) of the MINECO Spanish Ministry and the Consolidated Research Groug (Ref. SGR-2014-900) "Group d'anàlisis de processos socioecológics, canvis culturals i dinàmiques de Població a la Prehistòria". The MINECO Spanish Ministry also funded the research projects "Paleolítico Medio final y Paleolítico Superior inicial en la región central mediterránea ibérica (Valencia y Murcia)" (Ref. HAR2012-32703) and "Paleoflora ibérica en un contexto de complejidad: interacciones fisiográficas, ecológicas y evolutivas" (Ref.2012CGL-34717) that supported the post-excavation palaeobotanical analyses and the cost of a radiocarbon determination. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or the preparation of the manuscript.
Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.