The barbastelle bat may emit two different types of weak echolocation signals alternately, one upward through the nose and one downward through the mouth, to find prey while undetected and to sufficiently keep track of the environment, respectively, according to a study published September 9, 2015 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Anna-Maria Seibert and colleagues from the University of Tübingen, Germany.
Barbastelle bats prey almost exclusively on eared moths, using "stealth echolocation" signals that are 10-100 times weaker than those of other aerial hawking bats. These low intensity signals prevent early detection of the bat and can be heard by moths only at short distances leaving no time for evasive behavior. While foraging, barbastelle bats alternate between two different echolocation signal types. The authors of this study investigated whether these signals differ in emission direction or source level. They used a 16-microphone array to determine source level and sonar beam direction of more than 300 calls of wild bats in Central France.
The authors found that both types of search signals had very low source levels as compared to other aerial hawking bats. These two signal types were emitted in different directions; type 1 signals were directed downward and type 2 signals upward. The mouth and nostrils in barbastelle bats are roughly perpendicular to each other, and the authors posit that type 1 signals are emitted through the mouth while type 2 signals are emitted through the nose.
The authors suspect that the "stealth" upward signals may be used for the search and localization of prey while remaining undetected; however, the low source level may come at the cost of reducing the detection range for the environment below the bat. Therefore, the more downward directed signals may have evolved to compensate for this disadvantage and may be mainly used for spatial orientation in relation to the environment below the bat. The authors suggest that this signaling system has been adapted to the selective foraging of eared moths.
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Citation: Seibert A-M, Koblitz JC, Denzinger A, Schnitzler H-U (2015) Bidirectional Echolocation in the Bat Barbastella barbastellus: Different Signals of Low Source Level Are Emitted Upward through the Nose and Downward through the Mouth. PLoS ONE 10(9): e0135590. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135590
Funding: This study was funded by the Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience (CIN) at the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (S.51.40001.2). The CIN is an Excellence Cluster funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the framework of the Excellence Initiative (EXC 307). This study was also funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 550 and Schn 138/27-1). Furthermore we acknowledge support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Open Access Publishing Fund of the University of Tübingen. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.