Kazan Federal University partnered up with Justus Liebig University Giessen, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Georg August University Gottingen to reveal both structural and functional changes of the microbial community resistant to and able to decompose oily wastes in soil.
Contamination with oily wastes containing natural radionuclides is a potential hazard for soil health and function. Knowledge about the effects of compounds mixtures containing stimulating and inhibiting compounds on soils may serve for better understanding and further regulation of sewage sludge and organic waste management including disposal.
Most investigations of such wastes are focused on the direct effect of radionuclides on human. Less attention is paid to their impact on the microbially-mediated decomposition of soil organic matter (OM). Radioactive elements of the oily waste may cause chromosomal aberrations, single strand breaks, and base pair substitution in the DNA of microorganisms.
The experiment was dedicated to measuring CO2 efflux, microbial biomass, and community structure for 120 d after application of radioactive oily wastes to the soil at the ratio 1:4. Both waste and soil samples were collected in Tatarstan, Russia (54?50'26" N, 52?27'08'' E and 55?48'07'' N, 49?16'13'' E respectively).
Thus, disposal of radioactive petroleum waste strongly altered the structure of the microbial community resulting in the selection of resistant species able to decompose pollutants and also affected the community function (inhibition of microbial biomass and stimulation of respiration) which tended to stabilize after long-term incubation.
According to Polina Galitskaya, the next step of the investigation is to understand the mechanisms of microbial communities' behavior under the influence of compounds: which strains survive and which do not, who influences changes in community, strategy of nutrients consumption, biomass growth and so on.
This work was partly supported by the Russian Government Program for Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University and partly by the grant 15-04-04520 of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. The contribution of Evgenia Blagodatskaya was supported by the Russian Scientific Foundation (project No. 14-14-00625). We thank Irina Kramer for the excellent technical support provided during the molecular analysis.
Kazan Federal University is a member of Russian Academic Excellence Project 5-100 supported by the government of the Russian Federation aimed to improve its international competitiveness among the world's leading research and educational centers.