Public Release: 

High-quality foster care reduces chance of callous-emotional trait development for abandoned children


Washington D.C., December 1, 2015 - A study to be published in the December 2015 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP) reports that high-quality foster care can mitigate the development of callous-unemotional traits for adolescents who experienced parent deprivation in early life.

Callous-unemotional traits are often considered a precursor to psychopathy associated with aggressive and destructive acts. Children expressing these traits can present significant clinical challenges and societal costs. The evidence base for treatment of children with high levels of callous-unemotional traits is limited.

Using data from a randomized controlled trial of high-quality foster care for children in institutional (orphanage) care, a group of researchers led by Drs. Kathryn Humphreys and Charles Zeanah of the Tulane University School of Medicine, examined the relationship between a high-quality foster care intervention when children were between 6-30 months in age and callous-unemotional traits at a follow-up when children were age 12 years. The authors hypothesized that those children who received the foster care intervention would have lower levels of callous-unemotional traits in early adolescence.

Overall, children who spent time in orphanage care had higher levels of callous-unemotional traits than children who were never institutionalized. In addition, those randomized to receive the foster care intervention had lower levels of callous-unemotional traits than those who did not receive the intervention. This finding was only found in boys, so that boys who received the intervention demonstrated the greatest benefit in reduction of callous-unemotional traits. The authors then examined aspects of the intervention that predicted the mitigation of callous-unemotional traits in boys. They found that caregiver sensitivity to the child's distress, as observed during a caregiver--child interaction, explained the association.

Given the public health concerns associated with psychopathy and its antecedents, effective preventive interventions early in life are essential. Based on their findings, the authors concluded that encouraging sensitive responding to children's distress may be an important target for at-risk children and families. Clinical interventions that enhance sensitive and responsive parenting, particularly for children who experienced deprivation in early life, may reduce callous-unemotional traits in early adolescence.


The article "High-Quality Foster Care Mitigates Callous-Unemotional Traits Following Early Deprivation in Boys: A Randomized Controlled Trial," by Kathryn L. Humphreys, Lucy McGoron, Margaret A. Sheridan, Katie A. McLaughlin, Nathan A. Fox, Charles A. Nelson III, ( appears in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Volume 54, Issue 12 (December 2015), published by Elsevier.

Notes for editors

Full text of the article is available to credentialed journalists upon request; contact Mary Billingsley at +1 202 587 9672 or Journalists wishing to interview the authors may contact Dr. Charles H. Zeanah at

All articles published in JAACAP are embargoed until the day they are published as in press corrected proofs online at Articles cannot be publicized as in press accepted manuscripts. Contents of the publication should not be released to or by the media or government agencies prior to the embargo date.


Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP) is the official publication of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. JAACAP is the leading journal focusing exclusively on today's psychiatric research and treatment of the child and adolescent. Published twelve times per year, each issue is committed to its mission of advancing the science of pediatric mental health and promoting the care of youth and their families.

The journal's purpose is to advance research, clinical practice, and theory in child and adolescent psychiatry. It is interested in manuscripts from diverse viewpoints, including genetic, epidemiological, neurobiological, cognitive, behavioral, psychodynamic, social, cultural, and economic. Studies of diagnostic reliability and validity, psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological treatment efficacy, and mental health services effectiveness are encouraged. The journal also seeks to promote the well-being of children and families by publishing scholarly papers on such subjects as health policy, legislation, advocacy, culture and society, and service provision as they pertain to the mental health of children and families.

About Elsevier

Elsevier is a world-leading provider of information solutions that enhance the performance of science, health, and technology professionals, empowering them to make better decisions, deliver better care, and sometimes make groundbreaking discoveries that advance the boundaries of knowledge and human progress. Elsevier provides web-based, digital solutions -- among them ScienceDirect, Scopus, Elsevier Research Intelligence and ClinicalKey -- and publishes more than 2,500 journals, including The Lancet and Cell, and more than 33,000 book titles, including a number of iconic reference works. Elsevier is part of RELX Group plc, a world-leading provider of information solutions for professional customers across industries.

Media contact

Mary Billingsley
JAACAP Editorial Office
+1 202 587 9672

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