Public Release: 

General support for science doesn't always correlate with attitudes toward specific issues

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

WASHINGTON - U.S. adults perform comparably to adults in other economically developed countries on most measures of science knowledge and support science in general, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. However, attitudes toward some specific issues, such as climate change or genetic engineering, may be shaped by factors such as values and beliefs rather than knowledge of the science alone. Despite popular assumptions, research shows that increasing science literacy will not lead to appreciably greater support for science.

The committee that conducted the study and wrote the report said that science knowledge is only one component of science literacy, which also encompasses understanding scientific practices, such as forming and testing hypotheses, and understanding science as a social process, such as the role of peer review.

"Historically, assessments of science literacy have focused on individuals, but we see now that communities can engage in science and produce scientific knowledge in a way that transcends any individual's ability," said committee chair Catherine Snow, Patricia Albjerg Graham Professor of Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. "Furthermore, the structural features of a society can impede or enhance individuals' or communities' development of science literacy."

Communities can demonstrate science literacy by leveraging individuals' diverse knowledge and skills to achieve specific goals, the report says. For example, AIDS activists in the late 1980s to early 1990s developed scientific knowledge to demand modifications to drug-testing procedures and drug-approval policies and worked together to successfully advocate for expediting the delivery of drugs to consumers in health emergencies. In addition, communities can meaningfully contribute to science knowledge through engagement in community action, often in collaboration with scientists. For instance, activists in a community may work together to detect and address links between environmental hazards and cancers.

Individuals with limited economic resources and limited access to high-quality education have fewer opportunities to develop science literacy and health literacy, the report says. This lack of access disproportionately affects some demographic groups including Latinos and others who speak English as a second language, African-Americans, and children growing up in low-income families.

Limited evidence shows that populations around the world have positive attitudes toward science and support public funding for scientific research, and these attitudes have been generally stable over time, the committee found. In addition, there is an overall high level of trust in scientists and in scientific institutions.

The report presents a research agenda with questions about creating new measures of science literacy and expanding the information available to clarify: 1) the relationship between science knowledge and attitudes toward science; 2) how science literacy is used and measured in different contexts; 3) the relationship of science literacy to other literacy skills; and 4) the role of science literacy for citizens as decision-makers.


The study was sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are private, nonprofit institutions that provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions related to science, technology, and medicine. The Academies operate under an 1863 congressional charter to the National Academy of Sciences, signed by President Lincoln. For more information, visit A committee roster follows.


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Copies of Science Literacy: Concepts, Contexts, and Consequences are available from the National Academies Press on the Internet at or by calling 202-334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242. Reporters may obtain a copy from the Office of News and Public Information (contacts listed above).

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Board on Science Education

Committee on Science Literacy and Public Perception of Science

Catherine E. Snow (chair)
Patricia Albjerg Graham Professor
Graduate School of Education
Harvard University
Cambridge, Mass.

Nick Allum
University of Essex
Colchester, United Kingdom

John C. Besley
Associate Professor and Ellis N. Brandt Chair in Public Relations
Michigan State University
East Lansing

Dominique Brossard
Professor and Chair
Department of Life Science Communication
University of Wisconsin

Noah Weeth Feinstein
Associate Professor
Department of Curriculum and Instructions
School of Education
University of Wisconsin

S. James Gates Jr. [1]
Distinguished University Professor and Center for String and Particle Theory Director
Department of Physics
University of Maryland
College Park

Louis M. Gomez
Educational Department
Graduate School of Education and Information Studies
University of California
Los Angeles

Alexa T. McCray2
Professor of Medicine
Harvard Medical School

Janet Ohene-Frempong
J.O. Frempong & Associates Inc.
Elkins Park, Pa.

Jonathan Osborne
Kamalachari Professor of Science Education
Graduate School of Education
Stanford University
Stanford, Calif.

Eugenie C. Scott[1]
Executive Director (retired)
National Center for Science Education
Berkeley, Calif.

Earnestine Willis
Kellner Professor of Pediatrics; and
Center for the Advancement of Underserved Children
Department of Pediatrics
Medical College of Wisconsin


Kenne Dibner
Study Director

[1] Member, National Academy of Sciences
2 Member, National Academy of Medicine

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