Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa are facing an unprecedented epidemic of both infectious and non-communicable diseases. This 'double burden of disease' represents a major strain on already under-resourced health systems. Hypertension, in particular, is an independent, reversible risk factor for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal disease, affecting mortality. Yet, the disease remains largely undiagnosed and undertreated in sub-Saharan Africa.
The research conducted by Swiss TPH is among the first longitudinal studies looking at the development of hypertension among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. In a cohort of 955 HIV-infected people, 111 (11.6%) were hypertensive at the time of HIV diagnosis. An additional 80 people (9.6%) developed hypertension after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) against HIV. The incidence of hypertension found in this study after ART initiation is more than 1.5 times higher than the one observed in a large multinational study of Europe, the United States and Australia.
The study found that development of hypertension was not linked to the level of immunosuppression or any ART regimen in particular, but rather predicted by traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as age, body mass index and renal function. The effect of ART on body mass and the restoration of immunity are potential drivers of hypertension when under treatment.
The study cohort included non-pregnant patients, aged 15 years and above, with a median age of 38 years, who had not been exposed to ART before the study.
Integrated care to face the double burden of disease
Hypertension and other non-communicable diseases share a number of similarities with HIV, such as the chronic evolution of disease and the need for regular follow-up and optimal treatment adherence. The study therefore suggests integrating routine hypertension screening in HIV clinics.
"We have seen that such routine screening is a feasible and effective strategy to diagnose hypertension within an HIV programme," said Dr. Emilio Letang, Swiss TPH and Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal). "Moving forward, however, we need to make sure that leveraging such synergies does not compromise the efficiency of existing HIV programmes."
Need to expand access to antihypertensive drugs
The study also urges expansion of access to antihypertensive medicines. "In many countries across sub-Saharan Africa, there is still a lack of access to drugs against major non-communicable diseases," said Prof. Dr. Christoph Hatz, Chief Medical Officer at Swiss TPH. "In order for such integrated care programmes to work successfully, ensuring better availability and affordability of drugs as well as implementing comprehensive preventive and curative measures will be key."
About the study
The study was carried out at the Chronic Disease Clinic of Ifakara, within the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO) in Tanzania, a joint programme of Swiss TPH, the Ifakara Health Institute, the University Hospital Basel, and the Saint Francis Referral Hospital of Ifakara. The study was conceived by Emilio Letang (Swiss TPH and ISGlobal) and Eduardo Rodríguez-Arbolí (Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, Seville, Spain) and developed and implemented by the KIULARCO Study Group under the coordination of Emilio Letang.
About Swiss TPH
The Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) is Switzerland's leading public and global health institution. Associated with the University of Basel, the institute combines research, teaching and service provision at local, national and international level. Swiss TPH has more than 700 employees and students working in 22 countries. It is led by Professor Jürg Utzinger.
About the Chronic Disease Clinic in Ifakara (CDCI)
The CDCI is an integral part of the St. Francis Referral Hospital (SFRH) in Ifakara, Tanzania, and is supported by Swiss TPH and the Ifakara Health Institute (IHI). Since 2005, CDCI has been delivering HIV care to patients in the Kilombero and Ulanga districts. Initially built to support the Tanzanian National AIDS Control Programme, its activities have progressively expanded to offer care to all outpatients and inpatients with HIV, including pregnant and non-pregnant adults and HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children. To date, CDCI has enrolled close to 9,000 HIV patients.
Authors: Eduardo Rodríguez-Arbolí, Kim Mwamelo, Aneth Vedastus Kalinjuma, Hansjakob Furrer, Christoph Hatz, Marcel Tanner, Manuel Battegay and Emilio Letang
Journal: PLOS ONE
Date of Acceptance: February 15th 2017
Date of Publication: March 8th 2017
Dr. Emilio Letang, MD, MPH, PhD, former Head of the Chronic Disease Clinic in Ifakara (CDCI), Scientific Collaborator at Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) and Assistant Research Professor at Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal),
Tel. +34 93 227 5400 Ext. 2982, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Prof. Dr. Christoph Hatz, Chief Medical Officer, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), +41 61 284 81 11, firstname.lastname@example.org
Sabina Beatrice-Matter, Communications, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Tel +41 61 284 83 64, Mob +41 79 737 91 58, email@example.com