One of the main objectives of bio-based economy is to provide end markets with a wide selection of bio-based products able to compete with the fossil-based counterparts. The role of R&D to develop reliable and cost-effective valorization schemes of renewable biomass is of considerable importance. In this regard, the diverse biochemical composition of biomass and derived wastes in the one hand, and the multitude of potential end products and related production procedures and manufacturing technologies, on the other hand, make this task a challenging one.
In this context, the authors started this review article by emphasizing the tremendous potential of biomass and its derived wastes in the industrial sector. Indeed, many bioresources are available around the world (unlike fossil resources) and could be acquired at reasonable costs. Numerous interesting research studies conducted worldwide on the possibilities to convert various kinds of biomass and agro-industrial wastes into high added-value products were reported in this article. Considering the importance of the energy sector in socioeconomic development, the research efforts in producing biomass-derived fuels (bioethanol, biodiesel and biomethane) were showcased. In addition, the production of activated carbons from bioresources and wastes as renewable and inexpensive precursors wasalsoreviewedconsidering their wide spectrum of potential utilization, including water and wastewater treatment, air depollution and energy storage.
Overall, the aim of this review article is to inform readers about the role of biomass and its derived wastes in developing sustainable production systems and producing sustainable bioproducts, through continuous scientific research and development.