Public Release: 

Gender gap in academic medicine has negative impact, but there are simple solutions

New study examines frontline perspectives of gender gap in academic medicine and uncovers systems-based improvements

St. Michael's Hospital


IMAGE: This is Dr. Sharon Straus, director of the Knowledge Translation Program at the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, co-led this study. view more 

Credit: St. Michael's Hospital

TORONTO, April 9, 2018 - Existing gender gaps in academic medicine may have a negative impact on workplace culture and organizational effectiveness, but there are simple, systems-based solutions, suggests a new study.

Published today in BMC Medicine, the study led by Dr. Reena Pattani and Dr. Sharon Straus analyzed interviews conducted with female and male faculty members at the University of Toronto and its six fully-affiliated hospitals. Interviews with frontline staff uncovered that the gender gap in academic medicine has a negative impact.

"We identified three key themes that the gender gap fuels: social exclusion of female colleagues, reinforced stereotypes, and unprofessional behaviour," said Dr. Straus, director of the Knowledge Translation Program at the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital. "Interestingly, instead of just focusing on the issues, the study's participants also offered system-based solutions to close the gap."

Several opportunities to mitigate the gap emerged from this research, said Dr. Straus, who is also interim physician-in-chief at St. Michael's. The participants suggested more streamlined recruitment, hiring, and promotions processes and simple amendments to the work environment, such as unconscious bias training for leaders and holding meetings during work hours so that all faculty members can attend. Formalized mentorship and consistent monitoring of the gender gap were also offered as solutions.

"These are solutions at the level of the institution, rather than at the level of the individual," said Dr. Pattani, a physician at St. Michael's. "The advice historically given to women has been about how they can change their own personal behaviours. That overlooks some of the systemic factors holding women back. We need to ensure that institutions can create a more inclusive environment for all."

This work builds on previous research conducted by Dr. Straus, which found that a significant gender gap existed across the research institute at St. Michael's Hospital. Since then, steps have been taken to reduce the gender imbalance. Across the University of Toronto's Department of Medicine, search guidelines, transparent promotions processes, and a formal mentorship program have also been implemented, and a biennial faculty survey helps university and hospital leadership monitor trends of the gender gap over time. At St Michael's Hospital, the Department of Medicine has also been hosting networking opportunities for female trainees.

"These are inspiring measures to promote equity. We can work together to institute more system-based approaches like these ones, which are low cost and easy to implement," Dr. Pattani said.

The researchers acknowledge that there are also other factors beyond gender that impact workplace culture, which were not studied in this paper. Further research is needed to understand how sexual orientation, race and ethnicity play a role in the representation gap, Dr. Straus said.


This study was funded by the Department of Medicine at the University of Toronto.

About St. Michael's Hospital

St. Michael's Hospital provides compassionate care to all who enter its doors. The hospital also provides outstanding medical education to future health care professionals in more than 29 academic disciplines. Critical care and trauma, heart disease, neurosurgery, diabetes, cancer care, care of the homeless and global health are among the Hospital's recognized areas of expertise. Through the Keenan Research Centre and the Li Ka Shing International Healthcare Education Centre, which make up the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, research and education at St. Michael's Hospital are recognized and make an impact around the world. Founded in 1892, the hospital is fully affiliated with the University of Toronto.

Media contact

For more information, please contact:

Ana Gajic
Senior Communications Advisor, Research
St. Michael's Hospital
Phone: 416-864-5960 or 416 458 0629
Inspired Care. Inspiring Science.
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