With the increased likelihood of extreme weather events and sea-level rise associated with climate change, flooding poses a major risk to coastal regions. Seawater flooding is not only a threat to many already-threatened ecosystems, but also can cause socio-economic costs to the many millions of people that live on the coastal fringes around the world.
This threat has traditionally been countered by the construction of 'hard defenses' such as concrete walls. This solution often proves to be expensive, inflexible, and of limited value to local biodiversity. Modern coastal management practices now recognize the need to integrate man-made engineering solutions with natural ecosystems, or 'soft-defenses.' Consequently, across the world, many coastal (sand dunes, salt marshes, mangroves) habitats are now recognized for their important contribution to flood defense.
Only recently have ecologists begun to examine how these ecosystems will respond to and recover from prolonged seawater immersion. In light of their crucial role in soft infrastructure, it is imperative that scientists strive to understand how coastal plants and vegetation respond to the saltwater flood risk associated with rising sea levels and storm surges.
Tiffany D. Lum - a Masters student at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI - will present her research on salinity tolerance in a coastal plant species and how it affects plant reproduction resilience. Because plant population persistence depends on successful seedling recruitment, seedling survival to maturity, and reproduction, it is important to know how increased salinity will influence each of these processes.
Lum and her advisor Kasey E. Barton sought to quantify salinity tolerance in a widespread and abundant native coastal plant species: Jacquemontia sandwicensis (Convolvulaceae). They wanted to identify mechanisms underlying the overall tolerance across the plant's lifecycle and through each developmental stage.
The plants were exposed to three weeks of salinity watering treatments at the seed, seedling, juvenile, and mature ontogenetic stages. Tolerance was quantified as the performance and fitness under salinity treatment; for example, higher photosynthetic rates and higher total mass in comparison to control groups. They found that the plants do exhibit some trait plasticity to avoid salinity stress in the short term, useful at early life stages. However, a delayed onset of flowering and fewer produced seeds suggest that salinity exposure at different life stages may threaten the resilience of this species in light of future sea level rise and storm surges.
The talk is part of a session about optimizing management of coastal ecosystems in the face of climate-driven threats. This session consists of 10 presentations, including the selections below:
- Ontogenetic shifts in salinity stress response in Hawaiian coastal species -- Tiffany D. Lum and Kasey E. Barton, University of Hawaii at Manoa
- Thresholds in marsh plant resistance to shoreline waves -- Brian R. Silliman, Duke University; Qiang He, Duke University
- Seagrass meadows in Caribbean reef systems and their role in coastal stability -- Brigitta van Tussenbroek, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Puerto Morelos, Mexico
- Ecologically engineering living shorelines for high-energy environments -- Christine Angelini, Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, Alex Sheremet, Coastal Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL and Nicole Dix, Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve, Ponte Vedra, FL
OOS 21-3 - Ontogenetic shifts in salinity stress response in Hawaiian coastal species
- Wednesday, August 8, 2018: 2:10 PM
- 343, New Orleans Ernest N. Morial Convention Center
- Tiffany D. Lum and Kasey E. Barton, University of Hawaii at Manoa
- Presentation abstract
2018 Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana
Extreme events, ecosystem resilience and human well-being
5-10 August 2018
Ecologists from 50 U.S. states, U.S. territories, and countries around the world will converge on New Orleans, Louisiana this August for the 103nd Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Up to 4,000 attendees are expected to gather for thousands of scientific presentations on breaking research and new ecological concepts at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center on August 5 - 10, 2018.
ESA invites press and institutional public information officers to attend for free. To apply, please contact ESA Public Information Manager Zoe Gentes directly at firstname.lastname@example.org. Walk-in registration will be available during the meeting.
The Ecological Society of America (ESA), founded in 1915, is the world's largest community of professional ecologists and a trusted source of ecological knowledge, committed to advancing the understanding of life on Earth. The 9,000 member Society publishes five journals and a membership bulletin and broadly shares ecological information through policy, media outreach, and education initiatives. The Society's Annual Meeting attracts 4,000 attendees and features the most recent advances in the science of ecology. Visit the ESA website at http://www.