Public Release: 

Increased caries risk among perinatally HIV-infected youth on integrase inhibitors

International & American Associations for Dental Research

Alexandria, Va., USA - At the 96th General Session of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), held in conjunction with the IADR Pan European Regional (PER) Congress, Caroline Shiboski, University of California, San Francisco, USA gave an oral presentation titled "Increased Caries Risk Among Perinatally HIV-infected Youth on Integrase Inhibitors." The IADR/PER General Session & Exhibition is in London, England at the ExCeL London Convention Center from July 25-28, 2018.

Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been successful at preserving immune function and controlling opportunistic infections, including oral mucosal diseases, among individuals infected with HIV. Shiboski and co-authors explored the association between cART and dental and periodontal outcomes among HIV-infected youth.

Through a cross-sectional study of oral health among perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) youth participating in the Oral Health substudy of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort, dentists at 11 sites were trained to perform standardized dental/periodontal examinations. They used the decayed-missing-filled-surfaces/teeth index (DMFS/T) to determine the number of decayed surfaces/teeth and the full-mouth periodontal evaluation to derive the number of teeth with bleeding on probing. The zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to assess the association between cART type and dental or periodontal outcomes.

Among the PHIV youth, 89% were on cART at time of enrollment. For the PHIV youth who were on the same cART for at least one year, the mean decayed tooth score of those receiving an integrase inhibitor was 86% higher than that of those youth without an integrase inhibitor. The median number of teeth with at least two sites with bleeding on probing was significantly higher among youth who started cART at age six years or older compared to youth who started before age two. Initiating protease inhibitors at age six or older was also associated with significantly higher DMFS/T score compared to participants who initiated before age two.

These finding suggests that youth receiving integrase inhibitor should undergo close surveillance of their dental status through preventative visits. Earlier initiation of cART and PI seems to be associated with less gingival inflammation and lower DMFT.

This research was presented as part of the Immunity and Immunotherpay oral session that took place of Thursday, July 26 from 3:15 p.m. - 4:45 p.m. at the ExCeL London Convention Center in London, England.


About the International Association for Dental Research

The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) is a nonprofit organization with over 10,800 individual members worldwide, dedicated to: (1) advancing research and increasing knowledge for the improvement of oral health worldwide, (2) supporting and representing the oral health research community, and (3) facilitating the communication and application of research findings. To learn more, visit

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