A Children's researcher has received a $2 million grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study nephrotic syndrome in Drosophila, a basic model system that has revealed groundbreaking insights into human health. The award for Zhe Han, Ph.D., an associate professor in Children's Center for Genetic Medicine Research, is believed to be the first ever NIH Research Project grant (R01) to investigate glomerular kidney disease using Drosophila. Nephrotic syndrome is mostly caused by damage of glomeruli, so it is equivalent to glomerular kidney disease.
"Children's National leads the world in using Drosophila to model human kidney diseases," Han says.
In order to qualify for the five-year funding renewal, Han's lab needed to successfully accomplish the aims of its first five years of NIH funding. During the first phase of funding, Han established that nephrocytes in Drosophila serve the same functions as glomeruli in humans, and his lab created a series of fly models that are relevant for human glomerular disease.
"Some 85 percent of the genes known to be involved in nephrotic syndrome are conserved from the fly to humans. They play similar roles in the nephrocyte as they play in the podocytes in human kidneys," he adds.
Pediatric nephrotic syndrome is a constellation of symptoms that indicate when children's kidneys are damaged, especially the glomeruli, units within the kidney that filter blood. Babies as young as 1 year old can suffer proteinuria, which is characterized by too much protein being released from the blood into the urine.
"It's a serious disease and can be triggered by environmental factors, taking certain prescription medicines or inflammation, among other factors. Right now, that type of nephrotic syndrome is mainly treated by steroids, and the steroid treatment works in many cases," he says.
However, steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome occurs primarily due to genetic mutations that affect the kidney's filtration system: These filters are either broken or the protein reabsorption mechanism is disrupted.
"When genetics is to blame, we cannot turn to steroids. Right now there is no treatment. And many of these children are too young to be considered for a kidney transplant," he adds. "We have to understand exactly which genetic mutation caused the disease in order to develop a targeted treatment."
With the new funding, Han will examine a large array of genetic mutations that cause nephrotic syndrome. He's focusing his efforts on genes involved in the cytoskeleton, a network of filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm of living cells that help them to maintain shape and carry out important functions.
"Right now, we don't really understand the cytoskeleton of podocytes - highly specialized cells that wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus - because podocytes are difficult to access. To change a gene requires time and considerable effort in other experimental models. However, changing genes in Drosophila is very easy, quick and inexpensive. We can examine hundreds of genes involving the cytoskeleton and see how changing those genes affect kidney cell function," he says.
Han's lab already found that Coenzyme Q10, one of the best-selling nutrient supplements to support heart health also could be beneficial for kidney health. For the cytoskeleton, he has a different targeted medicine in mind to determine whether Rho inhibitors also could be beneficial for kidney health for patients with certain genetic mutations affecting their podocyte cytoskeleton.
"One particular aim of our research is to use the same strategy as we employed for the Coq2 gene to generate a personalized fly model for patients with cytoskeleton gene mutations and test potential target drugs, such as Rho inhibitors." Han added. "As far as I understand, this is where the future of medicine is headed."