News Release

Prehistoric fish fills 100 million year gap in evolution of the skull

X-rays of an ancient jawless fish shows earliest-known example of internal cartilage skull, unlike that of any other known vertebrate

Peer-Reviewed Publication

University of Birmingham

3D model of prehistoric fish fossil and skull

video: Video showing the 3D model created by the researchers. view more 

Credit: Field Museum of Natural History, Richard Dearden and Ivan Samson.

A 455-million-year-old fossil fish provides a new perspective on how vertebrates evolved to protect their brains, a study has found.

In a paper published in Nature today (Wednesday 20th September), researchers from the University of Birmingham, Naturalis Biodiversity Centre in Leiden, Netherlands; and the Natural History Museum have pieced together the skull of Eriptychius americanus.

The research, funded by the Leverhulme Trust, suggests that the ancient jawless fish found in ancient deposits in Colorado, USA has a skull unlike that of any previously seen, and fills a gap currently spanning 100 million years in the evolutionary history of the vertebrate skull.

Using computed tomography, a form of x-ray technique, scientists recreated a detailed 3D representation of the skull of Eriptychius and is the first time that such a comprehensive recreation has been done on the specimen which was collected in the 1940s, originally described in the 1960s and is housed in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.

This ancient fish had separated, independent cartilages encasing the brain, rather than the solid bone or cartilage structure of jawless and jawed fish that followed it.

While later species have a fully bound cage of cartilage that holds the brain, these results suggest that the early evolution of structures to separate the brain from other parts of the head may have begun with Eriptychius.

Dr Ivan Sansom, Senior Lecturer in Palaeobiology at the University of Birmingham and senior author of the paper said:

“These are tremendously exciting results that may reveal the early evolutionary history of how primitive vertebrates protected their brains. Eriptychius americanus appears to be the first evidence for a series of cartilages separating the brain from the rest of the head. This study emphasises the importance of museum collections and the application of new techniques in studying them.”

Dr Richard Dearden, Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Palaeobiology at Naturalis Biodiversity Center and lead author of the paper said:

“On the face of it Eriptychius is not the most beautiful of fossils. However, by using modern imaging techniques we were able to show that it preserves something unique: the oldest three-dimensionally preserved vertebrate head in the fossil record. This fills a major gap in our understanding of the evolution of the skull of all vertebrates, ultimately including humans.”


For more information please contact Ellie Hail, Communications Officer, University of Birmingham at or alternatively on +44 (0)7966 311 409. You can also contact the Press Office out of hours on +44 (0)121 414 2772 and at


Video credit: Field Museum of Natural History, Richard Dearden and Ivan Samson.

Fossil images

Eriptychius_Fossil_01_Scale5mm_credit_FMNH_ISansom Credit: Field Museum of Natural History and Ivan Samson.

Eriptychius_Fossil_02_Scale5mm_credit_FMNH_ISansom Credit: Field Museum of Natural History and Ivan Samson.

3D images

Eriptychius_3D_credit_FMNH_RPDearden Credit: Field Museum of Natural History, Richard Dearden

Eriptychius_Reconstruction_credit_FMNH_RPDearden Credit: Field Museum of Natural History, Richard Dearden

Composite image

Eriptychius_Workflow-01_credit_FMNH_RPDearden_ISansom Credit: Field Museum of Natural History, Richard Dearden and Ivan Samson.


Notes to editors

  • The University of Birmingham is ranked amongst the world’s top 100 institutions. Its work brings people from across the world to Birmingham, including researchers, teachers and more than 8,000 international students from over 150 countries.

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