News Release

Low doses of kretek cigarette smoke altered rat lung histometric, and overexpression of the p53 gene

This article by Dr. Edy Parwanto and colleagues is published in the journal, The Open Respiratory Medicine Journal

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Bentham Science Publishers

Kretek cigarettes consist of tobacco, cloves, and sauce, with filtered kretek cigarettes having a filter at one end. Cigarette smoke can harm the respiratory system, so it's important to understand how low doses of smoke affect the histometric measurements of the respiratory system and p53 gene expression. This study aims to examine these changes in the respiratory system and p53 gene expression.

In this study, we used Sprague-Dawley rats. Group I, the control group, breathed normal air and were not exposed to filtered kretek cigarette smoke. Group II, the treatment group, was exposed to smoke from one filtered kretek cigarette per day for three months. We analyzed the differences in lung histometry measurements and p53 gene expression between the groups using the Independent Sample T-test. A difference between groups was considered significant if the test results showed P < 0.05.

In Group I, the bronchioles' length, width, area, and perimeter were 40.55±1.57 μm, 14.82±0.41 μm, 494.61±5.62 μm², and 233.87±4.51 μm, respectively. In Group II, these measurements were 30.76±0.78 μm, 9.28±0.40 μm, 297.32±2.53 μm², and 177.84±5.15 μm, respectively. The area and perimeter of the respiratory bronchioles in Group I were 17.68±0.49 μm² and 26.60±0.52 μm, respectively, while in Group II, they were 19.28±0.35 μm² and 29.28±0.35 μm, respectively. Mucus was present in the bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles of Group II, but not in Group I. Additionally, the study concluded that exposure to low doses of filtered kretek cigarette smoke, 1 cigarette per day for 3 months, increased p53 gene expression in the lungs of rats.

The size of the bronchioles in rats decreased after being exposed to the smoke of one filtered kretek cigarette per day for 3 months, while the size of the respiratory bronchioles increased. Additionally, exposure to the smoke increased p53 gene expression in the rats' lungs.

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