News Release

A research team develops hyperspectral library for rice nutrient stress, achieving up to 100% accuracy with deep learning

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Nanjing Agricultural University The Academy of Science



The flow diagram of the study.

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Credit: The authors

A research team has developed a hyperspectral library for 14 NPK nutrient stress conditions in rice, using a terrestrial hyperspectral camera to collect and analyze 420 rice stress images. The transformer-based deep learning network SHCFTT accurately identified nutrient stress patterns, outperforming SVM, 1D-CNN, and 3D-CNN models with an accuracy ranging from 93.92% to 100%. This method enhances the precision of nutrient stress detection, contributing to improved crop health monitoring and decision-making in precision agriculture.

Rice is a vital crop for global development, but its yield and quality are threatened by various stresses, particularly nutrient stress. Traditional methods for monitoring crop stress are labor-intensive and time-consuming. While remote sensing technology shows promise, it faces challenges such as atmospheric conditions and mixed farmland communities. Current research highlights the potential of deep learning, particularly Transformer architecture, to enhance hyperspectral imaging (HSI) analysis. However, studies combining deep learning with HSI for identifying rice NPK stress are lacking.

A study (DOI: 10.34133/plantphenomics.0197) published in Plant Phenomics on 29 May 2024, aims to address this gap by developing a deep learning classification network based on CNN and Transformer architecture to accurately identify nutrient stress patterns in rice using terrestrial hyperspectral images.

A research team used HSI collected by SPECIM IQ to analyze rice under different nutrient stresses, calculating vegetation indices (NDVI, PRI, PSRI) to identify stress patterns. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) highlighted trends in nitrogen (N) stress, showing varying values across different treatments. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and plant senescence reflectance index (PSRI) effectively indicated potassium (K) stress levels. These indices provided a detailed view of the spectral response of rice canopies under nutrient stress. To further analyze the data, an unsupervised visualization process was employed, revealing complex clustering scenarios and demonstrating the need for advanced modeling to differentiate stress types. The study then proposed a deep learning network, SHCFTT, combining CNN and Transformer architectures to classify nutrient stress patterns from hyperspectral images. Ablation tests confirmed the model's effectiveness, showing significant improvements in classification accuracy when key modules were included. The SHCFTT model outperformed traditional methods, achieving overall accuracy (OA) and average accuracy (AA) up to 100% in both single-year and biennial datasets. Even with limited training samples, SHCFTT maintained high accuracy, proving its robustness and potential for practical applications.

According to the study's lead researcher, Zhentao Wang, “The proposal of these methods not only has a positive effect on identifying nutrient stress in rice but also has implications for monitoring and decision-making of crop health status in the field and precision agriculture. In addition, this was a typical case study of rice nutrition coercion in highly diverse and intense field conditions. Contributed to the development of hyperspectral imaging crop phenotype research and precision agriculture field information perception.”

In summary, this research offers a reliable approach for monitoring rice health and managing nutrient stress, contributing to better crop management and precision agriculture. Future studies will focus on extending the algorithm to different crops and optimizing attention mechanisms for enhanced performance.





Original Source URL


Jinfeng Wang1*, Yuhang Chu1, Guoqing Chen1, Minyi Zhao1, Jizhuang Wu2, Ritao Qu2, Zhentao Wang1,3*


1College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150000, China

2Yantai Agricultural Technology Popularization Center, Yantai 261400, China

3College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China

*Corresponding authors at: College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150000,China

Funding information

This work is supported by China's National Key R & D Plan- (2021YFD200060502); China'sNational Key R & D Plan- (2018YFD0300105); and China's National Key R & D Plan- (2016YFD0300909).

About Plant Phenomics

Plant Phenomics is an Open Access journal published in affiliation with the State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics & Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing Agricultural University (NAU) and published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Like all partners participating in the Science Partner Journal program, Plant Phenomics is editorially independent from the Science family of journals. Editorial decisions and scientific activities pursued by the journal's Editorial Board are made independently, based on scientific merit and adhering to the highest standards for accurate and ethical promotion of science. These decisions and activities are in no way influenced by the financial support of NAU, NAU administration, or any other institutions and sponsors. The Editorial Board is solely responsible for all content published in the journal. To learn more about the Science Partner Journal program, visit the SPJ program homepage.

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