News Release

Soybean seed hardness demystified: key genes and networks uncovered

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Nanjing Agricultural University The Academy of Science

Seed hardness and component contents of NMH and PXS at different stages.


Seed hardness and component contents of NMH and PXS at different stages.

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Credit: Horticulture Research

Soybean seed hardness, a key factor in consumer acceptance and vegetable soybean quality, has been elucidated through a comprehensive study. Researchers identified the genetic and molecular mechanisms influencing this trait, focusing on differential gene expression during seed development. The discovery of the GmSWEET2 gene as a significant regulator of hardness offers a pathway to enhance soybean texture, potentially revolutionizing the market with customized varieties to suit diverse consumer preferences.

Vegetable soybeans are valued for their taste and nutritional benefits, but consumer preferences for seed hardness vary across regions. Chinese consumers prefer softer seeds, while African consumers favor moderately hard seeds. Despite its importance, research on the factors influencing seed hardness has been limited, especially for vegetable soybeans. Addressing these regional preferences requires an in-depth understanding of the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that determine seed hardness. Due to these challenges, there is a pressing need for a comprehensive study to enhance soybean quality and marketability.

A collaborative study (DOI: 10.1093/hr/uhae084) from Nanjing Agricultural University, published in Horticulture Research, illuminates the genome-wide transcriptome, pinpointing key regulatory networks and genes associated with seed hardness in vegetable soybeans. This research sheds light on the intricate processes that determine soybean seed texture.

The study revealed significant genetic differences between the two soybean landraces during seed development. Key findings include the differential expression of genes involved in starch synthesis, protein storage, and fatty acid metabolism. The GmSWEET2 gene emerged as a critical regulator of seed hardness; its overexpression in Pixiansilicao led to increased seed hardness, confirming its pivotal role. Additionally, the study identified stages S3 and S4 of seed development as crucial periods where these genetic differences significantly influenced the accumulation of seed storage components. During these stages, genes involved in cell proliferation and cell wall formation also showed differential expression, impacting seed hardness. These findings highlight the importance of understanding genetic regulation during specific developmental stages to manipulate seed hardness effectively, providing valuable insights for soybean breeding programs aimed at improving seed texture and quality.

Dr. Han Xing, a leading researcher, commented, "Our discovery of the GmSWEET2 gene's role in seed hardness provides valuable insights into soybean breeding. By manipulating this gene, we can develop soybean varieties with tailored seed textures to meet various consumer preferences, enhancing market appeal."

This research paves the way for breeding programs aimed at improving the quality and consumer acceptance of vegetable soybeans. The identification of GmSWEET2 and other key genes offers new targets for genetic modification, allowing for the development of soybean varieties with optimized seed hardness, thus catering to diverse global markets.





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Funding information

This work was supported by the Key Research and Development Program (Modern Agriculture) of Jiangsu Province (BE2023348), the National Key R&D Program of China (2021YFD1201605), Zhongshan Biological Breeding Laboratory (ZSBBL) (BM2022008-01 and ZSBBL-KY2023-03), the ‘JBGS’ Project of Seed Industry Revitalization in Jiangsu Province (JBGS(2021)059), China Agriculture Research System of MOF and MARA (CARS-04), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31471519), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (XUEKEN2023022), the Jiangsu Agriculture Science and Technology Innovation Fund (CX(22)5004 and CX(20)2015), the Key R&D project of Jiangsu Province (BE2019376), Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production and Cyrus Tang Innovation Center for Seed Industry.

About Horticulture Research

Horticulture Research is an open access journal of Nanjing Agricultural University and ranked number one in the Horticulture category of the Journal Citation Reports ™ from Clarivate, 2022. The journal is committed to publishing original research articles, reviews, perspectives, comments, correspondence articles and letters to the editor related to all major horticultural plants and disciplines, including biotechnology, breeding, cellular and molecular biology, evolution, genetics, inter-species interactions, physiology, and the origination and domestication of crops.

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