News Release

Mandatory vaccinations required in only half of all countries

Global study finds penalties for infringement differ significantly by country

Peer-Reviewed Publication

McGill University

As countries struggle to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccination uptake is a public health priority now more than ever. Efforts to increase vaccinations vary greatly around the globe. A new McGill-led study comparing policies around the world finds broad implementation of mandatory vaccination mandates. However, the penalties for failing to vaccinate differ significantly by country, ranging from fines to jail time.

"Achieving and maintaining high vaccination coverage globally is critical. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown just how challenging infectious disease control is when vaccination is not possible. There are many other vaccine-preventable diseases, yet vaccine uptake is not high enough to prevent outbreaks in many countries," says Dr. Nicole Basta, an associate professor in the Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health at McGill University.

The study, published in Vaccine, assesses national mandatory vaccination policies from all UN-recognized countries worldwide. "The use of vaccination programs is one of the most cost-effective and successful tools for public health. Especially in a pandemic, high vaccination coverage on a global scale is important," says lead author Katie Gravagna, a Master's student in epidemiology studying under the supervision of Associate Professor Basta.

Variations in penalties for non-compliance

Researchers found that 105 out of the 193 countries (54%) studied had evidence of a national mandatory vaccination policy that required at least one vaccine. Of those, 62 countries (59%) also have one or more penalties that can be imposed on individuals who do not comply. The frequency, types, and severity of penalties for failing to comply with mandatory vaccination varied widely across all regions from relatively minor penalties like small one-time fines to jail time.

Educational and financial penalties were the most common. Most educational penalties deny school enrollment until vaccination requirements have been met. Of the 32 countries with financial penalties, 53% have one-time fines of less than $1000 USD. More severe penalties entailed jail time - a possibility in 12 countries, seven of which include less than six months of jail time. Italy's mandatory vaccination policy had among the most severe penalties, with violations potentially resulting in the temporary loss of parental rights.

"Our findings set the stage for the most important next step: determining whether these mandatory vaccination policies and the penalties that countries use to promote adherence are effective, beneficial, or harmful in deterring non-compliance. These comparative studies are important because we need to define best practices for sustaining high vaccination uptake worldwide," says Basta.


About the study

"Global Assessment of National Mandatory Vaccination Policies and Consequences of Non-Compliance" by Katie Gravagna, Andy Becker, Robert Valeris-Chacin, Inari Mohamed, Sailee Tambe, Fareed Awan, Traci Toomey, and Nicole Basta is published in Vaccine. Vaccine is the pre-eminent journal for those interested in vaccines and vaccination. It is the official journal of The Edward Jenner Society and The Japanese Society for Vaccinology and is published by Elsevier. Copies of this paper are available to credentialed journalists upon request.


About McGill University

Founded in Montreal, Quebec, in 1821, McGill University is Canada's top ranked medical doctoral university. McGill is consistently ranked as one of the top universities, both nationally and internationally. It?is a world-renowned?institution of higher learning with research activities spanning two campuses, 11 faculties, 13 professional schools, 300 programs of study and over 40,000 students, including more than 10,200 graduate students. McGill attracts students from over 150 countries around the world, its 12,800 international students making up 31% of the student body. Over half of McGill students claim a first language other than English, including approximately 19% of our students who say French is their mother tongue.

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