News Release

人类正在制造相当大的喧闹声,即使在荒野也是如此

Peer-Reviewed Publication

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

Humans are Creating Quite a Racket, Even in the Wilderness

audio: An audio interview with researcher Rachel Buxton, who discusses the results her recent study to quantify noise pollution across the US. 1:25 How noise pollution can affect animals. 2:45 How Buxton <i>et al.</i> measured noise levels across the country. 5:15 How wilderness areas are affected by noise pollution. 6:12 How these finding could be used for better noise pollution management. This material relates to a paper that appeared in the May 5, 2017, issue of <i>Science</i>, published by AAAS. The paper, by R.T. Buxton at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colo., and colleagues was titled, "Noise pollution is pervasive in U.S. protected areas." view more 

Credit: Michelle Hampson / Carla Schaffer / AAAS

新的研究披露,人类制造的噪音令背景音量水平增加了一倍,这种现象出现在美国63%的保护区中,而在这些地方,人为的干扰理应减少才对。这些结果凸显了严重的人类噪音污染(常被认为只是城市才有的问题)正在侵入更为偏远的地方。噪音污染对野生动植物具有深重的影响,例如,它能减弱被猎食动物听到捕食动物靠近的能力或干扰动物寻找配偶的功能。甚至连植物也会因噪音污染而受到影响,因为能播散植物种子的食草动物或啮齿动物会因声音干扰而改变它们的行为或所处的位置。这些改变会对生态系统产生级联效应。为了对美国各地(尤其是对那些指定的庇护生物多样性的保护区)噪音污染程度进行量化分析,Rachel Buxton等对全美492个地方的声音做了记录。根据每个地区独特的地理空间特征,他们用一种计算机算法确立了不同地区的基线声音状态(即自然的声音水平)。他们发现,63%的保护区中的背景噪音超过了3个分贝(声音),有21%的保护区的背景噪音则超过了10个分贝;这基本上相当于在这些地区的背景噪音分别增加了一倍或10倍。作者报告,荒野地区所接触到的噪音污染最少,然而有12%的荒野地区仍然受到超过自然水平3分贝的人为噪音影响。实施较严格管控的保护区的人为噪音较少;例如,在保护区内指定的重要栖息地所经受的过量噪音要比未受到保护区中的栖息地少56%。在相关的播客中,Buxton详细讲述了不同区域是如何受到噪音污染影响的(例如,这些影响似乎与运输、开发和采掘性土地使用有密切关系);她指出,她的团队所收集的数据点出了减轻噪音污染的一些“唾手可得的方法”。

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