A paper recently published in the scientific journal Stem Cells and Development shares an important advancement in conservation -- one that may make the difference between survival and extinction for wildlife species that have been reduced to very small population sizes. Using fibroblast cells that have been preserved in San Diego Zoo Global's Frozen Zoo®, scientists have been able to generate induced pluripotent stem cells of northern and southern white rhinoceroses. This important breakthrough is the first step in a complex process for generating gametes from deceased and non-reproductive individuals of these two subspecies.
"For the northern white rhino, which is functionally extinct, the only hope for survival may be in the creation of gametes from cells that were frozen in our labs decades ago," said Marisa Korody, Ph.D., lead author of the study and northern white rhino genetics scientist for San Diego Zoo Global. "What we have just done is taken the first step towards being able to bring this subspecies back to life."
San Diego Zoo Global has fibroblast cell lines from 12 individual northern white rhinos preserved in its Frozen Zoo®. It is thought that the genetic diversity in those frozen samples may be enough to bring the species back from the brink of extinction using this new advancement. However, scientists point out that this emerging technology can only be used if the living cells from critically endangered wildlife species are saved for the future.
"When Dr. (Kurt) Benirschke created the Frozen Zoo more than 40 years ago, we did not know how important it might be for the future," said Oliver Ryder, Ph.D., director of Conservation Genetics at San Diego Zoo Global. "As species are placed increasingly at risk, we now recognize that what we have may be the key to saving these species. However, we will not be able to offer this technology unless we have saved cell lines the way we did with the northern white rhino."
About San Diego Zoo Global
As a leader in conservation, the work of San Diego Zoo Global includes on-site wildlife conservation efforts (representing both plants and animals) at the San Diego Zoo, San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, as well as international field programs on six continents. The work of these entities is made accessible to over 1 billion people annually, reaching 150 countries via social media, our websites and the San Diego Zoo Kids network, in children's hospitals in 12 countries. The work of San Diego Zoo Global is made possible with support from our incredible donors committed to saving species from the brink of extinction.
Stem Cells and Development